International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction, Working Commission W18 - Timber Structures
Cross laminated timber (CLT) has become a well-known and widely applied two-dimensional, engineered timber product worldwide. It constitutes a rigid composite of an odd number of orthogonal and glued layers. Focusing on a single glued node loaded in plane in shear and composed of two crossed board segments and the adhesive layer in-between, in principle three types of shear mechanisms can be distinguished: mechanism I "net-shear" (shearing perpendicular to grain), mechanism II "torsion" and mechanism III "gross-shear" (shearing parallel to grain). In fact, while having generally accepted values for the resistance against mechanism II and good estimates for mechanism III the resistance against "net-shear" (mechanism I) is still in discussion. In spite of numerous investigations on nodes and on whole CLT elements in the past, a common sense concerning the test procedure, the consideration and handling of distinct influencing parameters and the quantification of the shear strength are open. We focus on the in plane shear resistance of single nodes according to mechanism I. We (i) propose a test configuration for reliable determination of the shear strength, (ii) determine the shear resistance in case of shear loads perpendicular to grain, (iii) discuss influences of some parameters on the shear strength of single nodes, and (iv) give a brief outlook concerning the resistance of CLT elements against shear loads in plane.
European Conference on Cross Laminated Timber (CLT)
May 21-22, 2013, Graz, Austria
Cross laminated timber (CLT) has been developed to a worldwide well-known and versatile useable building material. Currently increasing rates in production volume and distribution can be observed. In fact CLT, thanks to its laminar structure making it well suited for use in construction, provides new horizons in timber engineering, in areas which had until now been the realm of mineral building materials like concrete and masonry.
After a short introduction, this paper aims to demonstrate current production processes used for rigid CLT. In section 2 the process steps are described and essential requirements, as well as pros and cons of various production techniques, are discussed. Latest results of R & D and of development and innovation in production technology are presented. In section 3 test and monitoring procedures in the area of the internal quality assurance, known as factory production control (FPC), are presented. Diverse regulations, in the form of technical approvals for CLT as well as in the CLT product standard prEN 16351 , are discussed. Additionally, some technological aspects of the product, CLT, together with a comparison of geometrical and production relevant parameters of current technical approvals in Europe are provided in section 4.
In the final and main part of the paper, production and technology is presented in a condensed way. The outlook for current and future developments, as well as the ongoing establishment of the solid construction technique with CLT, is given. The product, CLT, comprises an enormous potential for timber engineering as well as for society as a whole. Standardisation and further innovation in production, prefabrication, joining technique, building physics and building construction make it possible for timber engineering to achieve worldwide success.
Cross laminated timber (CLT) has gained popularity and relevance in the construction industry during the past decade. Its versatile applicability, economic competitiveness as well as an increasing social consciousness for sustainable constructions have been main reasons for this positive development. Its laminar composition enables CLT to withstand in- and out-of-plane loads. Due to its structure featuring orthogonally oriented adjacent layers, in CLT loaded out-of-plane, shear and more specific rolling shear has to be considered in ultimate (ULS) as well as serviceability limit state (SLS) design. This is because rolling shear constitutes a potential failure mechanism and contributes a noticeable amount to the overall deflection. Comprehensive knowledge on rolling shear modulus (GR) and strength (fR) is therefore of utmost importance for an adequate design of CLT structures. Previous investigations on rolling shear properties and their influential parameters have primarily been performed numerically and using Norway spruce (Picea abies). The main goal of our contribution, based on investigations detailed in Ehrhart (2014), was to identify the most important parameters for rolling shear characteristics and to quantify their influence. Furthermore, information about the rolling shear performance of several timber species was analysed to investigate their potential for use in CLT-products. In view of upcoming new timber species increasingly pushed into the market, investigations on rolling shear comprised also some hardwood and other softwood species with a potential to be used for (cross) laminated timber products.
Consolidated knowledge of CLT properties under in-plane shear is crucial for typical structural applications such as wall and floor diaphragms, cantilevered CLT walls and CLT used as (deep) beams, in all cases potentially featuring holes or notches. The current technical approvals for CLT products contain differing regulations to determine their load-carrying capacities in-plane. Generally they imply a verification of the torsional stresses in the cross-section of the cross-wise glued elements as well as a verification of the shear stresses proportionally assigned to the boards of the top and cross layers. The basis of theoretical and practical considerations are the following three basic failure scenarios for a CLT-element under in-plane shear: (i) gross-shear (longitudinal shearing in all layers), (ii) net-shear (transverse shearing in all layers in weak direction), and (iii) torsion failure in the gluing interfaces between the layers.
In timber engineering, self-tapping screws, optimized primarily for axial loading, represent the state-of-the-art in fastener and reinforcement technology. Their economic advantages and comparatively easy handling make them one of the first choices for application in both domains. This paper focuses on self-tapping screws and threaded rods applied as reinforcement, illustrating the state-of-the-art in application and design approaches in Europe, in conjunction with numerous references for background information. With regard to medium to large span timber structures which are predominately erected by using linear timber members, from e.g. glued laminated timber, the focus of this paper is on their reinforcement against stresses perpendicular to grain as well as shear. However, latest findings with respect to cross laminated timber are included as well.
Withdrawal properties of axially-loaded groups of screws in the narrow face of cross laminated timber (CLT) are investigated by means of a stochastic approach based on a single screw model which provides a complete stochastic description of the load-displacement curve. Different group dimensions and configurations are analysed, featuring screws with equal or different thread-fibre angles. The stochastic approach is successfully verified by tests. Influences caused by shortcomings in assembling and by screws penetrating knots as well as gaps are addressed. Suggestions, relevant for the development of CLT system connectors and for practical applications, are made.
Self-tapping screws are efficient and flexible fasteners, applicable for many types of connections. Investigations on axially loaded groups of screws pointed out, that small spacing between the screws lead to block shear failure mode. So far, block and plug shear failure mode are only analysed for laterally loaded fasteners. Corresponding models cannot be simple transferred to primary axially loaded screws, because of their load insertion continuously along the effective thread featuring a thread-fibre angle perpendicular or with an angle to grain. Results gained by means of two different test configurations, with constant 90° thread-fibre angle but different configurations of group of screws and support conditions are presented. A block shear model is presented, and for mean values for stiffness and strength properties as model parameters are discussed together with values for parameters related to the force distribution over the effective thread length for the first test configuration. Agreement between model and test results was found on a conservative basis. As outlook, considerations of additional bending stresses as well as parameter optimisation are seen as prerequisites and next steps for further model improvement and practicality.
This state-of-the-art report has been prepared within COST Action FP1402 Basis of structural timber design from research to standards, Working Group 3 Connections. The Action was established to create an expert network that is able to develop and establish the specific information needed for standardization committee decisions. Its main objective is to overcome the gap between broadly available scientific results and the specific information needed by standardization committees. This necessitates an expert network that links practice with research, i.e. technological developments with scientific background. COST presents the ideal basis to foster this type of joint effort. Chapter 8 Connections presents an integral part of Eurocode 5 and is in need of revision. This state-of-the-art report shall provide code writers with background information necessary for the development of the so-called Second Generation of the Eurocodes, now aimed to be produced in 2022.
The intention of this STAR is a more detailed summary of the relevant work, done during the last 20 years on the topic of CLT. Additional references not included in the documents of SC5.T1 were added highlighting also CLT relevant publications not directly addressing content of the CLT draft version for EC 5. Apart from providing additional references for all topics and chapters of SC5.T1 draft documents edited by WG 2 / TG 1 & TG 3 within this STAR, further necessary scoentific work was identified and listed.
This report represents the results of the activities performed in working group 1, Basis of Design. The most important task of working group 1 was the defragmentation and harmonization of techniques and methods that are necessary to prove the reliable, safe and economic application of timber materials or products in the construction industry. This report is structured into five parts. At first general principles regarding the design formats are addressed (Part I). Afterwords timber specific aspects regarding code calibration (Part II) and serviceability (Part III) are summarized. In Part IV other demanding issues for the implementation into Eurocode 5 are addressed. Here also summaries of joint activities with other working groups on cross laminated timber and timber connections are presented. The report concludes with a guideline for data analysis (Part V).