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10 records – page 1 of 1.

Comparative Life-Cycle Assessment of a High-Rise Mass Timber Building with an Equivalent Reinforced Concrete Alternative Using the Athena Impact Estimator for Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2465
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems

Comparative Life-cycle Assessment of a Mass Timber Building and Concrete Alternative

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2429
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Environmental Impact
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems

Cradle-To-Gate Life-Cycle Assessment of Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) Produced in the Pacific Northwest Region of the United States

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue783
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Author
Bergman, Richard
Alanya-Rosenbaum, Sevda
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Report
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Life-Cycle Assessment
US
Cradle-to-Gate
Production
Life-Cycle Inventory
Life-Cycle Impact Assessment
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The goal of this study was to update life-cycle assessment (LCA) data associated with laminated veneer lumber (LVL) production in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States from cradle-to-gate mill output. The authors collected primary mill data from LVL production facilities per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) Research Guidelines. Comparative assertions were not a goal of this study.
Online Access
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Cradle-To-Gate Life-Cycle Assessment of Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) Produced in the Southeast Region of the United States

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue782
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Author
Bergman, Richard
Alanya-Rosenbaum, Sevda
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Report
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Life-Cycle Impact Assessment
US
Production
Life-Cycle Assessment
Cradle-to-Gate
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The goal of the present study was to develop life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) data associated with gate-to-gate laminated veneer lumber (LVL) production in the southeast (SE) region of the U.S. with the ultimate aim of constructing an updated cradle-to-gate mill output life-cycle assessment (LCA). The authors collected primary (survey) mill data from LVL production facilities per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) Research Guidelines. Comparative assertions were not a goal of the present study.
Online Access
Free
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Environmental Life-Cycle Assessment and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of a High-Rise Mass Timber Building: A Case Study in Pacific Northwestern United States

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2838
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Environmental Impact
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Liang, Shaobo
Gu, Hongmei
Bergman, Richard
Organization
USDA Forest Product Laboratory
Editor
Ganguly, Indroneil
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Cost
Keywords
LCA
Environmental Impact
Carbon Analysis
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
Summary
Global construction industry has a huge influence on world primary energy consumption, spending, and greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions. To better understand these factors for mass timber construction, this work quantified the life cycle environmental and economic performances of a high-rise mass timber building in U.S. Pacific Northwest region through the use of life-cycle assessment (LCA) and life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA). Using the TRACI impact category method, the cradle-to-grave LCA results showed better environmental performances for the mass timber building relative to conventional concrete building, with 3153 kg CO2-eq per m2 floor area compared to 3203 CO2-eq per m2 floor area, respectively. Over 90% of GHGs emissions occur at the operational stage with a 60-year study period. The end-of-life recycling of mass timber could provide carbon offset of 364 kg CO2-eq per m2 floor that lowers the GHG emissions of the mass timber building to a total 12% lower GHGs emissions than concrete building. The LCCA results showed that mass timber building had total life cycle cost of $3976 per m2 floor area that was 9.6% higher than concrete building, driven mainly by upfront construction costs related to the mass timber material. Uncertainty analysis of mass timber product pricing provided a pathway for builders to make mass timber buildings cost competitive. The integration of LCA and LCCA on mass timber building study can contribute more information to the decision makers such as building developers and policymakers.
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Free
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Life Cycle Assessment and Environmental Building Declaration for the Design Building at the University of Massachusetts

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1836
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Gu, Hongmei
Bergman, Richard
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
Publisher
United States Department of Agriculture
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Environmental Building Declaration
Life-Cycle Assessment
Green Building
Non-Residential
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)
Research Status
Complete
Summary
With the world’s increasing focus on sustainability in the construction sector through green building systems, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has been actively engaged in green building advocacy in the United States through USDA Tall Wood Building competitions and follow-up research on use of mass timber for nonresidential buildings. The USDA Forest Service, Forest Product Laboratory (FPL) funded the study of environmental performance of the pioneer mass timber building (the John W. Olver Design Building) built at University of Massachusetts Amherst in 2016. The Athena Sustainable Materials Institute conducted the whole building life cycle assessment (LCA) using the Impact Estimator for Building software. Secondly, the reported LCA results led to development of an environmental building declaration (EBD) in conformance with European standard EN 15978. Environmental building declarations summarize the embodied and operational environmental impacts during the full building life cycle. An EBD is much like an environmental product declaration (EPD) which is intended for marketing and educational use, but instead of covering individual products like an EPD, an EBD covers the whole building. Lastly, the LCA results of the Design Building were then compared with a functionally equivalent steel and concrete building to acquire the whole building LCA credit in Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) v.4 for green buildings. With the mass timber use in the Design Building, the building qualified for the whole building LCA credit in LEED v4. With this project, FPL is helping to standardize environmental performance reporting and advanced mass timber building sustainability.
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Free
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Life Cycle Assessment of Forest-Based Products: A Review

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2175
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Environmental Impact
Application
Wood Building Systems

Life Cycle Assessment of North American Laminated Strand Lumber (LSL) Production

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2953
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Khatri, Poonam
Sahoo, Kamalakanta
Bergman, Richard
Puettmann, Maureen
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Editor
Brito, Jorge
Publisher
Lidsen Publishing Inc.
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Engineered Wood Product (EWP)
Green Buildings
Life-Cycle Assessment
Environmental Product Declaration
Research Status
Complete
Series
Recent Progress in Materials
Summary
Raw materials for buildings and construction account for more than 35% of global primary energy use and nearly 40% of energy-related CO2 emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emphasized the drastic reduction in GHG emissions and thus, wood products with very low or negative carbon footprint materials can play an important role. In this study, a cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was followed to quantify the environmental impacts of laminated strand lumber (LSL). The inventory data represented North American LSL production in terms of input materials, including wood and resin, electricity and fuel use, and production facility emissions for the 2019 production year. The contribution of cradle-to-gate life cycle stages was substantial (>70%) towards the total (cradle-to-grave) environmental impacts of LSL. The cradle-to-gate LCA results per m³ LSL were estimated to be 275 kg CO2 eq global warming, 39.5 kg O3eq smog formation, 1.7 kg SO2 eq acidification, 0.2 kg N eq eutrophication, and 598 MJ fossil fuel depletion. Resin production as a part of resource extraction contributed 124 kg CO2 eq (45%). The most relevant unit processes in their decreasing contribution to their cradle-to-grave GW impacts were resource extraction, end-of-life (EoL), transportation (resources and product), and LSL manufacturing. Results of sensitivity analysis showed that the use of adhesive, consumption of electricity, and transport distance had the greatest influences on the LCA results. Considering the whole life cycle of the LSL, the final product stored 1,010 kg CO2 eq/m³ of LSL, roughly two times more greenhouse gas emissions over than what was released (493 kg CO2 eq/m³ of LSL) from cradle-to-grave. Overall, LSL has a negative GW impact and acts as a carbon sink if used in the construction sector. The study results are intended to be important for future studies, including waste disposal and recycling strategies to optimize environmental trade-offs.
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Free
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Life-Cycle Inventory Analysis of Laminated Veneer Lumber Production in the United States

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue141
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Environmental Impact
Energy Performance
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Author
Bergman, Richard
Organization
International Convention of Society of Wood Science and Technology
Year of Publication
2015
Format
Conference Paper
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Topic
Environmental Impact
Energy Performance
Keywords
Life-Cycle Assessment
US
Life-Cycle Inventory
Energy Consumption
Carbon
Conference
The 58th International Convention of Society of Wood Science and Technology
Research Status
Complete
Notes
June 7-12, 2015, Grand Teton National Park, Jackson, Wyoming, USA
Summary
Documenting the environmental performance of building products is becoming increasingly common. Developing environmental product declarations (EPDs) based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) data is one way to provide scientific documentation. Many U.S. structural wood products have LCA-based “eco-labels” using the ISO standard. However, the standard requires underlying life-cycle inventory (LCI) data to be of recent age. This study updates the gate-to-gate manufacturing LCI data for laminated veneer lumber (LVL) for Pacific Northwestern (PNW) and for southeastern (SE) United States. Modeling the primary industry data per 1.0 m3 of LVL through LCI analysis provides the inputs and outputs from veneer logs to LVL starting at the forest landing. For PNW and SE, cumulative mass-allocated energy consumption associated with manufacturing 1.0 m3 of LVL was found to be 5.64 and 6.87 GJ/m3, respectively, with about 25% of the primary energy derived from wood residues. Emission data produced through modeling found that estimated biomass and fossil CO2 emissions in kg/m3 were 127 and 139 for the PNW and 108 and 169 for the SE. One m3 (~535 OD kg wood potion) of LVL stores about 980 kg CO2 equivalents. The amount of carbon stored in LVL thus exceeds total CO2 emissions during manufacturing by about 350%. This study provides the necessary gate-to-gate LVL manufacturing LCI data for the cradle-to-gate LCA to develop an updated EPD.
Online Access
Free
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Potential for Tall Wood Buildings to Sequester Carbon, Support Forest Communities, and Create New Options for Forest Management

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue724
Topic
Environmental Impact
Market and Adoption
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Bergman, Richard
Kelley, Stephen
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Market and Adoption
Cost
Keywords
Life Cycle Analysis
Carbon Sequestration
Financial Analysis
Life Cycle Costs
Economic Impact
Research Status
In Progress
Summary
The primary outcome of this work is to provide integrated analysis of the environmental, financial, and social benefits and costs of using CLT in tall wood buildings. Secondary outcomes will be (1) information, including a design team checkoff that can be used to inform the building community as they make decisions on specific, new building projects, and (2) an informational foundation for these stakeholders and others to begin to evaluate the complex tradeoffs between, and optimization of, environmental, financial, and social benefits and costs.
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10 records – page 1 of 1.