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12 records – page 1 of 2.

Comparative Life-Cycle Assessment of a High-Rise Mass Timber Building with an Equivalent Reinforced Concrete Alternative Using the Athena Impact Estimator for Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2465
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems

Comparative Life-cycle Assessment of a Mass Timber Building and Concrete Alternative

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2429
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Environmental Impact
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Liang, Shaobo
Gu, Hongmei
Bergman, Richard
Kelley, Stephen S.
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
Publisher
Society of Wood Science and Technology
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Design and Systems
Keywords
Life Cycle Analysis
Tall Wood
Environmental Assessment
Research Status
Complete
Series
Wood and Fiber Science
Summary
The US housing construction market consumes vast amounts of resources, with most structural elements derived from wood, a renewable and sustainable resource. The same cannot be said for all nonresidential or high-rise buildings, which are primarily made of concrete and steel. As part of continuous environmental improvement processes, building life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a useful tool to compare the environmental footprint of building structures. This study is a comparative LCA of an 8360-m2, 12-story mixed-use apartment/office building designed for Portland, OR, and constructed from mainly mass timber. The designed mass timber building had a relatively lightweight structural frame that used 1782 m3 of cross-laminated timber (CLT) and 557 m3 of glue-laminated timber (glulam) and associated materials, which replaced approximately 58% of concrete and 72% of rebar that would have been used in a conventional building. Compared with a similar concrete building, the mass timber building had 18%, 1%, and 47% reduction in the impact categories of global warming, ozone depletion, and eutrophication, respectively, for the A1-A5 building LCA. The use of CLT and glulam materials substantially decreased the carbon footprint of the building, although it consumed more primary energy compared with a similar concrete building. The impacts for the mass timber building were affected by large amounts of gypsum board, which accounted for 16% of total building mass. Both lowering the amount of gypsum and keeping the mass timber production close to the construction site could lower the overall environmental footprint of the mass timber building.
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Comparison of building construction and life-cycle cost for a high-rise mass timber building with its concrete alternative

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3219
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Environmental Impact
Author
Gu, Hongmei
Liang, Shaobo
Bergman, Richard
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Journal Article
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Mass Timber Building
Concrete Building
Life Cycle Cost
Economic Impact
Research Status
Complete
Series
Forest Products Journal
Summary
Mass timber building materials such as cross-laminated timber (CLT) have captured attention in mid- to high-rise building designs because of their potential environmental benefits. The recently updated multistory building code also enables greater utilization of these wood building materials. The cost-effectiveness of mass timber buildings is also undergoing substantial analysis. Given the relatively new presence of CLT in United States, high front-end construction costs are expected. This study presents the life-cycle cost (LCC) for a 12-story, 8,360-m2 mass timber building to be built in Portland, Oregon. The goal was to assess its total life-cycle cost (TLCC) relative to a functionally equivalent reinforced-concrete building design using our in-house-developed LCC tool. Based on commercial construction cost data from the RSMeans database, a mass timber building design is estimated to have 26 percent higher front-end costs than its concrete alternative. Front-end construction costs dominated the TLCC for both buildings. However, a decrease of 2.4 percent TLCC relative to concrete building was observed because of the estimated longer lifespan and higher end-of-life salvage value for the mass timber building. The end-of-life savings from demolition cost or salvage values in mass timber building could offset some initial construction costs. There are minimal historical construction cost data and lack of operational cost data for mass timber buildings; therefore, more studies and data are needed to make the generalization of these results. However, a solid methodology for mass timber building LCC was developed and applied to demonstrate several cost scenarios for mass timber building benefits or disadvantages.
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Cradle-To-Gate Life-Cycle Assessment of Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) Produced in the Pacific Northwest Region of the United States

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue783
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Author
Bergman, Richard
Alanya-Rosenbaum, Sevda
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Report
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Life-Cycle Assessment
US
Cradle-to-Gate
Production
Life-Cycle Inventory
Life-Cycle Impact Assessment
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The goal of this study was to update life-cycle assessment (LCA) data associated with laminated veneer lumber (LVL) production in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States from cradle-to-gate mill output. The authors collected primary mill data from LVL production facilities per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) Research Guidelines. Comparative assertions were not a goal of this study.
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Cradle-To-Gate Life-Cycle Assessment of Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) Produced in the Southeast Region of the United States

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue782
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Author
Bergman, Richard
Alanya-Rosenbaum, Sevda
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Report
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Life-Cycle Impact Assessment
US
Production
Life-Cycle Assessment
Cradle-to-Gate
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The goal of the present study was to develop life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) data associated with gate-to-gate laminated veneer lumber (LVL) production in the southeast (SE) region of the U.S. with the ultimate aim of constructing an updated cradle-to-gate mill output life-cycle assessment (LCA). The authors collected primary (survey) mill data from LVL production facilities per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) Research Guidelines. Comparative assertions were not a goal of the present study.
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Environmental Life-Cycle Assessment and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of a High-Rise Mass Timber Building: A Case Study in Pacific Northwestern United States

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2838
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Environmental Impact
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Liang, Shaobo
Gu, Hongmei
Bergman, Richard
Organization
USDA Forest Product Laboratory
Editor
Ganguly, Indroneil
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Cost
Keywords
LCA
Environmental Impact
Carbon Analysis
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
Summary
Global construction industry has a huge influence on world primary energy consumption, spending, and greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions. To better understand these factors for mass timber construction, this work quantified the life cycle environmental and economic performances of a high-rise mass timber building in U.S. Pacific Northwest region through the use of life-cycle assessment (LCA) and life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA). Using the TRACI impact category method, the cradle-to-grave LCA results showed better environmental performances for the mass timber building relative to conventional concrete building, with 3153 kg CO2-eq per m2 floor area compared to 3203 CO2-eq per m2 floor area, respectively. Over 90% of GHGs emissions occur at the operational stage with a 60-year study period. The end-of-life recycling of mass timber could provide carbon offset of 364 kg CO2-eq per m2 floor that lowers the GHG emissions of the mass timber building to a total 12% lower GHGs emissions than concrete building. The LCCA results showed that mass timber building had total life cycle cost of $3976 per m2 floor area that was 9.6% higher than concrete building, driven mainly by upfront construction costs related to the mass timber material. Uncertainty analysis of mass timber product pricing provided a pathway for builders to make mass timber buildings cost competitive. The integration of LCA and LCCA on mass timber building study can contribute more information to the decision makers such as building developers and policymakers.
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Life Cycle Assessment and Environmental Building Declaration for the Design Building at the University of Massachusetts

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1836
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Gu, Hongmei
Bergman, Richard
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
Publisher
United States Department of Agriculture
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Environmental Building Declaration
Life-Cycle Assessment
Green Building
Non-Residential
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)
Research Status
Complete
Summary
With the world’s increasing focus on sustainability in the construction sector through green building systems, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has been actively engaged in green building advocacy in the United States through USDA Tall Wood Building competitions and follow-up research on use of mass timber for nonresidential buildings. The USDA Forest Service, Forest Product Laboratory (FPL) funded the study of environmental performance of the pioneer mass timber building (the John W. Olver Design Building) built at University of Massachusetts Amherst in 2016. The Athena Sustainable Materials Institute conducted the whole building life cycle assessment (LCA) using the Impact Estimator for Building software. Secondly, the reported LCA results led to development of an environmental building declaration (EBD) in conformance with European standard EN 15978. Environmental building declarations summarize the embodied and operational environmental impacts during the full building life cycle. An EBD is much like an environmental product declaration (EPD) which is intended for marketing and educational use, but instead of covering individual products like an EPD, an EBD covers the whole building. Lastly, the LCA results of the Design Building were then compared with a functionally equivalent steel and concrete building to acquire the whole building LCA credit in Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) v.4 for green buildings. With the mass timber use in the Design Building, the building qualified for the whole building LCA credit in LEED v4. With this project, FPL is helping to standardize environmental performance reporting and advanced mass timber building sustainability.
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Life Cycle Assessment of Forest-Based Products: A Review

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2175
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Environmental Impact
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Sahoo, Kamalakanta
Bergman, Richard
Alanya-Rosenbaum, Sevda
Gu, Hongmei
Liang, Shaobo
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2019
Format
Journal Article
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Life-Cycle Assessment
Engineered Wood Product (EWP)
Mass Timber
Nanocellulose
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
Summary
Climate change, environmental degradation, and limited resources are motivations for sustainable forest management. Forests, the most abundant renewable resource on earth, used to make a wide variety of forest-based products for human consumption. To provide a scientific measure of a product’s sustainability and environmental performance, the life cycle assessment (LCA) method is used. This article provides a comprehensive review of environmental performances of forest-based products including traditional building products, emerging (mass-timber) building products and nanomaterials using attributional LCA. Across the supply chain, the product manufacturing life-cycle stage tends to have the largest environmental impacts. However, forest management activities and logistics tend to have the greatest economic impact. In addition, environmental trade-offs exist when regulating emissions as indicated by the latest traditional wood building product LCAs. Interpretation of these LCA results can guide new product development using biomaterials, future (mass) building systems and policy-making on mitigating climate change. Key challenges include handling of uncertainties in the supply chain and complex interactions of environment, material conversion, resource use for product production and quantifying the emissions released.
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Free
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Life Cycle Assessment of North American Laminated Strand Lumber (LSL) Production

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2953
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Khatri, Poonam
Sahoo, Kamalakanta
Bergman, Richard
Puettmann, Maureen
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Editor
Brito, Jorge
Publisher
Lidsen Publishing Inc.
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Engineered Wood Product (EWP)
Green Buildings
Life-Cycle Assessment
Environmental Product Declaration
Research Status
Complete
Series
Recent Progress in Materials
Summary
Raw materials for buildings and construction account for more than 35% of global primary energy use and nearly 40% of energy-related CO2 emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emphasized the drastic reduction in GHG emissions and thus, wood products with very low or negative carbon footprint materials can play an important role. In this study, a cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was followed to quantify the environmental impacts of laminated strand lumber (LSL). The inventory data represented North American LSL production in terms of input materials, including wood and resin, electricity and fuel use, and production facility emissions for the 2019 production year. The contribution of cradle-to-gate life cycle stages was substantial (>70%) towards the total (cradle-to-grave) environmental impacts of LSL. The cradle-to-gate LCA results per m³ LSL were estimated to be 275 kg CO2 eq global warming, 39.5 kg O3eq smog formation, 1.7 kg SO2 eq acidification, 0.2 kg N eq eutrophication, and 598 MJ fossil fuel depletion. Resin production as a part of resource extraction contributed 124 kg CO2 eq (45%). The most relevant unit processes in their decreasing contribution to their cradle-to-grave GW impacts were resource extraction, end-of-life (EoL), transportation (resources and product), and LSL manufacturing. Results of sensitivity analysis showed that the use of adhesive, consumption of electricity, and transport distance had the greatest influences on the LCA results. Considering the whole life cycle of the LSL, the final product stored 1,010 kg CO2 eq/m³ of LSL, roughly two times more greenhouse gas emissions over than what was released (493 kg CO2 eq/m³ of LSL) from cradle-to-grave. Overall, LSL has a negative GW impact and acts as a carbon sink if used in the construction sector. The study results are intended to be important for future studies, including waste disposal and recycling strategies to optimize environmental trade-offs.
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Life-cycle cost analysis of a mass-timber building: methodology and hypothetical case study

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3230
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Liang, Shaobo
Gu, Hongmei
Bilek, Ted
Bergman, Richard
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
Year of Publication
2019
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Life Cycle Cost Analysis
Mass Timber Building
Sensitivity Analysis
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The use of cross-laminated timber (CLT) as a building material is gaining popularity in the North American building sector, especially in mid- to high-rise building designs. This study presents the methodology of life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) and an example of a hypothetical case study in Portland, Oregon, USA, of a CLT mass timber building compared with a baseline code-compliant concrete alternative. It was found, not unexpectedly, that the mass timber building with premium energy and water saving designs exhibited a lower total life-cycle cost (TLCC) than a concrete building for a 60-year study period under provided research assumptions and limitations. The construction cost dominated the TLCCs for both buildings. Little to no historical construction and operational data exist for mass timber buildings in North America, which made this analysis limited for generalizing the results. However, a solid methodology was established for future LCCA on mass timber buildings, and cost-specific data will be implemented when the information becomes available.
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Free
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12 records – page 1 of 2.