Currently, design of tall wood buildings is generally accomplished in the USA through the so-called alternate means process, with requires extensive testing, engineering analysis, and a stringent peer review process. As it pertains to cross-laminated timber (CLT), it is critical to develop effective performance prediction models, through laboratory testing elaborating on material behaviors (e.g. hygrothermal, vibrational, etc.) as well as monitoring data on the mid- to long-term performance of timber structures in situ. This paper presents the scope and preliminary outcomes of a project aiming to cross reference laboratory research and in-situ monitoring to establish a holistic performance-monitoring protocol for mass timber buildings; this protocol can later serve to define standards for mid- to long-term monitoring as well as to develop guidelines for the design of mass timber structures.
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a prefabricated solid engineered wood product made of at least three orthogonally bonded layers of solid-sawn lumber that are laminated by gluing longitudinal and transverse layers with structural adhesives to form a solid panel. Previous studies have shown that the CLT buildings can perform well in seismic loading and are recognized as the essential role of connector performance in structural design, modelling, and analysis of CLT buildings. When CLT is composed of high-grade/high-density layers for the outer lamellas and low-grade/lowdensity for the core of the panels, the CLT panels are herein designated as hybrid CLT panels as opposed to conventional CLT panels that are built using one lumber type for both outer and core lamellas. This paper presents results of a testing program developed to estimate the cyclic performance of CLT connectors applied on hybrid CLT layups. Two connectors are selected, which can be used in wall-to-floor connections. These are readily available in the North American market. Characterization of the performance of connectors is done in two perpendicular directions under a modified CUREE cyclic loading protocol. Depending on the mode of failure, in some cases, testing results indicate that when the nails or screws penetrate the low-grade/low-density core lumber, a statistically significant difference is obtained between hybrid and conventional layups. However, in other cases, due to damage in the face layer or in the connection, force-displacement results for conventional and hybrid CLT layups were not statistically significant.
This paper presents a new alternative energy dissipation solution to be used with cross-laminated timber (CLT) self-centering walls. CLT is a relatively new building product in North America and could potentially be used for high-rise construction. The development of high-performance seismic design solutions is necessary to encourage innovative structures and the design of these structures to new heights. The objective of this paper is to propose a wall-to-floor connection system that is easy to install and replace (structural fuse) after the occurrence of a large damaging event. The proposed energy dissipators are fabricated following concepts used in developing steel buckling restrained steel braces (BRB), having a milled portion, which is designed to yield and is enclosed within a grouted steel pipe. The connection system is investigated experimentally through a test sequence of displacement-controlled cycles based on a modified version of the test method developed by the American Concrete Institute (ACI) to facilitate development of special precast systems (ACI T1.1-01 Acceptance Criteria for Moment Frames Based on Structural Testing). Digital Image Correlation (DIC) was used to analyze strain behavior of the milled portion, as well as track movement of the panels during quasi-static uniaxial and cyclic testing. The results show the yield behavior and energy dissipation properties of the connection system. Damage was focused primarily in the energy dissipators, with negligible deformation and damage to the CLT panels and connections.
The performance of heavy-timber structures in earthquakes depends strongly on the inelastic behavior of the mechanical connections. Nevertheless, the nonlinear behavior of timber structures is only considered in the design phase indirectly through the use of an R-factor or a q-factor, which reduces the seismic elastic response spectrum. To improve the estimation of this, the seismic performance of a three-story building designed with ring-doweled moment resisting connections is analyzed here. Connections and members were designed to fulfill the seismic detailing requirements present in Eurocode 5 and Eurocode 8 for high ductility class structures. The performance of the structure is evaluated through a probabilistic approach, which accounts for uncertainties in mechanical properties of members and connections. Nonlinear static analyses and multi-record incremental dynamic analyses were performed to characterize the q-factor and develop fragility curves for different damage levels. The results indicate that the detailing requirements of Eurocode 5 and Eurocode 8 are sufficient to achieve the required performance, even though they also indicate that these requirements may be optimized to achieve more cost-effective connections and members. From the obtained fragility curves, it was verified that neglecting modeling uncertainties may lead to overestimation of the collapse capacity.