When a glued laminated timber (GLT) beam with a round hole is subjected to a shear force and bending moment, the hole will crack and fail due to a large tensile stress perpendicular to the grain and shear stresses. If the stresses acting on the hole are known, it is possible to estimate the fracture load. However, it is necessary to obtain the stresses acting on the hole by finite element analysis, which is very time consuming. In this study, to easily estimate the fracture load, we proposed a formula to estimate the bearing capacity at the time of a hole fracture by obtaining the stress acting on the hole through fnite element analysis and an approximate formula. The validity of the proposed formula was verifed using the existing experimental data of a GLT beam. As a result, it was confrmed that the proposed equation can estimate the fracture load of GLT beams in Japan and that the proposed equation can estimate the fracture load of GLT beams in countries other than Japan with some accuracy.
Various design codes and design proposals have been proposed for glued laminated timber beams with round holes, assuming that the entire beam is composed of homogeneous-grade timber. However, in Japan, glued laminated timber composed of homogeneous-grade timber is rarely used for beams. In this study, the difference in the load-bearing capacity of glued laminated beams composed of homogeneous-grade timber and heterogeneous-grade timber with round holes when fractured by cracking was investigated experimentally and analytically. The materials used in the tests were glued laminated beams composed of homogeneous-grade Scots pine timber with a strength grade of E105-F345 and heterogeneous-grade Scots pine timber with a strength grade of E105-F300. Experiments confirmed that although the glued laminated beams composed of heterogeneous-grade timber have a lower material strength in the lamina with holes, its resistance to fracturing due to cracks associated with the holes is almost the same as that of the glued laminated beams composed of homogeneous-grade timber. The stresses acting on the holes in the laminated timber with holes of less than half the beam height were lower in the glued laminated beams composed of heterogeneous-grade timber than in the glued laminated beams composed of homogeneous-grade timber. The ratio of the stresses was found to be approximately equal to the ratio of the maximum bending stress or the maximum shear stress acting on the inner layer lamina, as determined by Bernoulli–Euler theory.
Three-point bending tests were performed on specimens of glued laminated timber with diferent specimen heights to failure to determine the relationship between specimen height and bending strength under tension perpendicular to the grain. For the three-point bending tests, two types of glued laminated timber composed of homogeneous grade timber, as specifed in the Japanese Agricultural Standard, were used. The laminae used for the glued laminated timber were L80 grade Scots pine and L110 grade Scots pine. The specimens used in the three-point bending tests had dimensions of 105 mm (width) and 10–300 mm (height). The experimental results showed that the bending strength decreased as the specimen height increased, but the rate of decrease in the bending strength decreased with increasing specimen height when the specimen height exceeded 100 mm. From the relationship between the bending strength and specimen height, parameters that fit Bažant’s size-effect law were derived, and for a specimen height of approximately 100 mm, the bending strength was equal to the perpendicular-to-the-grain tensile strength.
Journal of Structural and Construction Engineering: Transactions of AIJ
Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) panel is consisted of several layers of lumber stacked crosswise and glued together on their surfaces. In Europe, mid-to-high-rise building using CLT has been already built. Recently, CLT structure attracts attention in Japan as one of the means to promote Wooden Public Buildings. Since the lamina can utilize small or middle diameter wood as the raw materials, expansion of CLT demand would promote local forestry and wood industry. There are various joint methods of CLT such as LSB joints, screw joints with steel side-plates, and so on. In this study, we examined tensile bolt joint which is one of the effective joint methods of the end of panel when the wall panel showed rocking behavior, assuming architectural structure using the panels of around 1-2m in width.
Recently, the numerical value and the technical information of the design are insufficient though an increase of a large timber construction is expected. In this research, a high load carrying capacity shear wall with thick plywood sheathings for the large timber construction was developed, and its static bearing force was confirmed experimentally. And the bearing force of the shear wall was calculated by using past numerical analysis methods. As a result, the development of the wall having the target bearing force succeeded, and the numerical analysis method could be applied to the high load carrying capacity shear wall.