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Study on Seismic Performance of Building Structure with Cross Laminated Timber: Part 20: Intensity and Performance of Joint

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue975
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Seismic
Connections
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Suzuki, Kei
Goto, Takahiro
Shimizu, Yosuke
Yasumura, Motoi
Kaiko, Naoto
Miyake, Tatsuya
Hamamoto, Takashi
Goto, Hiroshi
Organization
Architectural Institute of Japan
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Seismic
Connections
Keywords
joint
Seismic Performance
Research Status
Complete
Summary
In this paper, the behaviour of cross-lam (CLT) wall systems under cyclic loads is examined. Experimental investigations of single walls and adjacent wall panels (coupled walls) in terms of cyclic behaviour under lateral loading carried out ìn Italy at IVALSA Trees and Timber Institute and in Canada at FPInnovations are presented. Different classifications of the global behaviour of CLT wall systems are introduced. Typical failure mechanisms are discussed and provisions for a proper CLT wall seismic design are given. The influences of different types of global behaviour on mechanical properties and energy dissipation of the CLT wall systems are critically discussed. The outcomes of this experimental study provides better understanding of the seismic behaviour and energy dissipation capacities of CLT wall systems.
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Fire Tests on Finger-Jointed Timber Boards

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue170
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Fire
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Klippel, Michael
Frangi, Andrea
Organization
ETH Zurich
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Report
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Adhesives
Strength
Finger-joint
Temperature
Fire Resistance
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This testing report summarises the experimental investigations on finger-jointed timber specimens, glued with different types of adhesives, loaded in tension and exposed to standard ISO-fire. The tests were performed as part of the project entitled “Fire safety of bonded structural timber elements” in the frame of a CTI-project (Commission for Technology and Innovation). The extensive testing programme on finger-jointed timber specimens was performed in cooperation with industry partners at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich). The main aim of this research project is to clarify if the currently used design model for the fire resistance of bonded structural timber elements, such as glued-laminated timber, should consider the behaviour of adhesives at elevated temperatures. In this experimental study, different adhesives available on the market from adhesive manufacturer from Europe (such as Casco AG, Dynea AG, Jowat AG, Türmerleim AG, Purbond AG) were tested. Adhesives being used for structural applications as well as adhesives not certified according to current European testing standards for the use in structural applications were tested. The fire performance of 12 different adhesives - of type 1C PUR, MUF, PRF, EPI, PVAc, UF - were tested in a finger-jointed connection for cross-sections with a width of 80, 140 and 200 mm. In total, 49 fire tests were performed under ISO-fire exposure at the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA) in Duebendorf/ Switzerland. Two tests were conducted with specimens equipped with thermocouples to determine the temperature distribution along the cross-section width. In the other tests, different parameters and their influence on the fire resistance were varied, such as the adhesive in the finger joint, the width of the specimen, the load level and the type of fire exposure on the testing lamella. The tests were performed in two test series in March and April, 2011 as well as in July and August, 2012. The second test series was extended by five additional tests with higher graded timber in August 2013. The main result from the first test series can be concluded as follows: The adhesives tested (2 x PUR, 1 x MUF) fulfil current approval criteria according to EN 301 (2013c) and EN 15425 (2008) for the use in load-bearing timber components in Europe. The adhesives fulfil at least the A7 test at 70°C according to EN 302-1 (2013a). Taking into account the failure pattern, no significant difference was observed between these adhesives. It could be shown that the higher loss of strength for some adhesives tested at elevated temperature does not necessarily lead to the same loss of strength in fire, since defects like knots may be dominant - depending on the strength class (grading). The main result from the second test series can be concluded as follows: No substantial difference was obtained for finger-jointed specimens glued with PRF and other structural adhesives. The PUR adhesive fulfilling the ASTM D7247 (2007) standard test at temperatures higher than 200 C did not reach a higher fire resistance than PUR adhesives which do not fulfil this standard. It was found that adhesives, which are used in structural timber members such as glued-laminated timber beams, need sufficient strength at lower temperatures than 200 C.This is especially explained by the steep temperature gradient typical for timber members such as glued-laminated timber. In addition to the fire tests, about 120 tensile tests on finger-jointed lamellas were performed at normal temperature. These lamellas were produced with the same types of adhesives as studied in the fire tests. The results of the whole investigation are summarised in this test report.
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Dynamic and Static Lateral Load Tests on Full-Sized 3-Storey CLT Construction for Seismic Design

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue481
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Tsuchimoto, Takahiro
Kawai, Naohito
Yasumura, Motoi
Miyake, Tatsuya
Isoda, Hiroshi
Tsuda, Chihiro
Miura, Sota
Murakami, Satoshi
Nakagawa, Takafumi
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Shake Table Test
Lateral Load Test
Shear Displacement
Joint Deformation
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 10-14, 2014, Quebec City, Canada
Summary
The Japanese domestic forests have never been maintained enough, and it was a great fear that the multiple functions of the forest such as watershed conservation, the land conservation, and so on has been declined. The construction employing the cross laminates timber (CLT) panels was offered as a method of large scale building in domestic and foreign countries. However, the seismic design method of CLT panel construction has never completed. So, in order to consider the seismic design method, the shaking table tests and static lateral load tests were conducted to the modelized CLT panel construction.
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Non-Linear Numerical Modelling of a Post-Tensioned Timber Frame Building with Dissipative Steel Angle Devices

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue649
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Seismic
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Simonetti, Michele
Smith, Tobias
Carlo Ponzo, Felice
Di Cesare, Antonio
Pampanin, Stefano
Nigro, Domenico
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Numerical modelling
Pres-Lam
Non-linear Dynamic Loading
Static Loading
Beam-Column Joint
Dissipative Steel Angles
Conference
European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 25-29, 2014, Istanbul, Turkey
Summary
This paper describes the numerical modelling of post-tensioned timber (Pres-Lam) frame systems under non-linear dynamic and static loading. From the conception of the post-tensioned jointed ductile concept it has been clear that the nature of its controlled rocking mechanism leant itself well to the use of a lumped plasticity approach. This approach combines the use of elastic elements with springs representing plastic rotations in the system. Two experimental testing campaigns have been used in order to confirm the effectiveness of this modelling technique in predicting both the global (frame) and local (beam-column) response of these systems. The first of these tests was a full scale beam-column joint tested quasi-statically and the second was a 3-dimensional, 3-storey, 2/3rd scale multi-storey post-tensioned timber frame building tested dynamically. During the testing programmes the specimens were tested both with and without the addition of dissipative steel angles which were designed to yield at a certain level of drift. These steel angles release energy through hysteresis during lateral frame movement thus increasing damping. Both structures were modelled using a lumped plasticity approach with springs that were calibrated against the moment rotation design procedure used for post-tensioned timber connections. This work has proved the adequacy of the use of two numerical modelling programs, RUAUMOKO and SAP2000, in providing accurate representation of structural response when calibrated against current design procedures. All testing was performed in the structural laboratory of the University of Basilicata in Potenza, Italy. This experimental campaign is part of a series of experimental tests in collaboration with the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
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Development and Evaluation of CLT Shear Wall Using Drift Pinned Joint

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue673
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Nakashima, Shoichi
Kitamori, Akihisa
Komatsu, Kohei
Que, Zeli
Isoda, Hiroshi
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Cedar
Shear Failure
Drift Pin Joint
Steel Connectors
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 10-14, 2014, Quebec City, Canada
Summary
The connectors for the CLT shear wall with drift pin joint were suggested. The wall composed of five layers Japanese cedar CLT, steel connectors and drift pins (diameter d = 16mm). The horizontal shear performances of the walls were evaluated by static experiment and 2D frame analysis. The experimental parameter was number and position of drift pins. Characteristic failure was shear failure on the border of the laminae. There were good agreement on initial stiffness, yield load and second stiffness between experiment and calculation.
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Pull-Out Strength of Glued-In Rod Joints from LVL

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue686
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Design and Systems
Mechanical Properties
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Author
Ito, Kazutoshi
Lee, Wonwoo
Song, Changsuk
Tanaka, Kei
Koshihara, Mikio
Inoue, Masafumi
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Conference Paper
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Topic
Design and Systems
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Pull-Out Tests
Glued-in rod joint
Strength
Temporary Loading
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 10-14, 2014, Quebec City, Canada
Summary
Recently, the Japanese government enacted a new law in order to promote large wooden building. As a result, the momentum in the construction of large wooden building especially multi-stories wooden buildings in local area has been growing rapidly. In order to achieve these buildings, the higher structural performances than that by usual technique are required.GIR joint system is widely adapted for the joint part of wooden structures. Glued in rod joint-system(GIR) have high strength and high rigidity compared to existing joint-system. On the other hand, the structural LVL with the flexibility performance of cross-section and high structural performance is expected as a material for multi-stories wooden building. So, in this study, the pull-out tests of GIR joints inserted to structural LVL are carried out. And structural characteristics of this type of joint is discussed. Maximum strength and allowable load for temporary loading obtained by pull-out tests are presented.
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Post-Tensioned Timber Frames with Supplemental Damping Devices

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1150
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Seismic
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Frames
Author
Smith, Tobias
Organization
University of Canterbury
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Thesis
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Frames
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Post-Tensioned
Static Response
Dynamic Response
Lateral Loading
Beam-Column Joint
Research Status
Complete
Summary
In recent years the public expectation of what is acceptable in seismic resisting construction has changed significantly. Engineers today live under demands which are far more intensive than their historical counterparts and recent seismic events have shown that preserving life is no longer sufficient, and a preservation of livelihood is now the minimum. This means that after a major seismic event a building should not only be intact but be usable with no or minimal post-quake intervention. In addition to this already high expectation these demands must be met in a green and sustainable fashion with minimal (or even negative) environmental impact. This doctoral project looks to further advance the research into a new and innovative method of timber construction which satisfies (and exceeds) these demands.
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Investigation Concerning Life Cycle Assessment of Worked Timber: Japanese Larch Glued Laminated Timber of Eastern Nagano Prefecture

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue961
Year of Publication
June 2014
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Matsukata, Keisuke
Asano, Yoshiharu
Takamura, Hideki
Hayakawa, Yoshiro
Publisher
J-STAGE
Year of Publication
June 2014
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Life-Cycle Assessment
Larch
Carbon
Finger joint
Research Status
Complete
Series
Japan Architectural Institute Technical Report
Summary
In a process before being finished in a sawing factory after felled in forest, we clarified the actual situation of the carbon income and expenditure with edge materials and the fuel, and calculated the carbon balance of the house made by Nagano’s local wood. In this report, we carried out the actual survey and a hearing investigation in the laminated lumber factory and, calculated carbon balance of Japanese larch finger joint wood and glued laminated timber of eastern Nagano prefecture.
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Effect of Array on Tensile Load Carrying Capacity CLT Drift Pinned Joint

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1532
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Nakashima, Shoichi
Kitamori, Akihisa
Araki, Yasuhiro
Isoda, Hiroshi
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Reduction Coefficients
Dowel-Type Connections
Drift Pinned Joint
Tensile Tests
Stiffness
Proportional Limit Load
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 772-779
Summary
A reduction coefficient is applied in usual design of multiple dowels type connections. The numbers of stiffeners in row is one of important factor to decide this coefficient. CLT drift pinned joint showed small orthotropy against in plane tensile load. Tensile tests of multiple drift pins joints were performed to evaluate the effect of array. Numbers of drift pins n in each specimen were same (n=12), but the arrangements were different (2 x 6, 3 x 4, 4 x 3, 6 x 2). Also the grain directions were parameters (0, 90 degrees). The reduction of initial stiffness and proportional limit load showed good agreement between theoretical prediction and experimental results.
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Timber Structures 3.0 - New Technology for Multi-Axial, Slim, High Performance Timber Structures

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1557
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Zöllig, Stefan
Frangi, Andrea
Franke, Steffen
Muster, Marcel
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Design and Systems
Keywords
Butt-Joint
Biaxial Load Bearing
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 1290-1297
Summary
Until today, all known timber building systems allow only slabs with a uniaxial load bearing action. Thereby, in comparison to normal reinforced concrete slabs, timber slabs are often thick, expensive and complicated to build. The reason for this is that there is no efficient connection technology to rigidly connect timber slab elements to each other. Alternative solutions are hybrid structural systems with concrete or steel, however, this combination of materials results in some disadvantages especially in terms of weight, ecology, construction time and costs. In the framework of a large research project a new timber slab system has been developed and already tested in first real applications. The developed slab system is designed for housing, commercial and industrial buildings. The slab system works as a flat slab carrying vertical loads biaxial and consists of timber slab elements like CLT glued together on site with a high performance butt-joint bonding technology. Research about the central slab element, the butt-joint bonding and fire tests have already been performed. The research showed the feasibility of this innovation. In 2015 a first prototype was built in Thun, Switzerland. A large three year research project started 2016 with the goal to reach market maturity.
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35 records – page 1 of 4.