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APA Engineered Wood Construction Guide

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3089
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Design and Systems
General Information
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
OSL (Oriented Strand Lumber)
Application
Floors
Walls
Roofs
Organization
APA
Year of Publication
2019
Format
Book/Guide
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
OSL (Oriented Strand Lumber)
Application
Floors
Walls
Roofs
Topic
Design and Systems
General Information
Keywords
Selection and Specification
Structural Composite Lumber
I-Joist
Engineered Wood Products
Construction
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Comprehensive guide to engineered wood construction systems for both residential and commercial/industrial buildings. Includes information on plywood and oriented strand board (wood structural panels), glulam, I-joists, structural composite lumber, typical specifications and design recommendations for floor, wall and roof systems, diaphragms, shear walls, fire-rated systems and methods of finishing.
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Carbon dynamics of paper, engineered wood products and bamboo in landfills: evidence from reactor studies

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3032
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Environmental Impact
Author
Ximenes, Fabiano A.
Kathuria, Amrit
Barlaz, Morton A.
Cowie, Annette L.
Organization
North Carolina State University
Publisher
Springer
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Journal Article
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Carbon
Engineered Wood Products
Decay
Landfill
Greenhouse Gas Inventory
Methane
Research Status
Complete
Series
Carbon Balance and Management
Summary
Background There has been growing interest in the development of waste-specific decay factors for estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from landfills in national greenhouse gas inventories. Although engineered wood products (EWPs) and paper represent a substantial component of the solid waste stream, there is limited information available on their carbon dynamics in landfills. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of carbon loss for EWPs and paper products commonly used in Australia. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions designed to simulate optimal anaerobic biodegradation in a landfill. Results Methane generation rates over incubations of 307–677 days ranged from zero for medium-density fibreboard (MDF) to 326 mL CH4 g-1 for copy paper. Carbon losses for particleboard and MDF ranged from 0.7 to 1.6%, consistent with previous estimates. Carbon loss for the exterior wall panel product (2.8%) was consistent with the expected value for blackbutt, the main wood type used in its manufacture. Carbon loss for bamboo (11.4%) was significantly higher than for EWPs. Carbon losses for the three types of copy paper tested ranged from 72.4 to 82.5%, and were significantly higher than for cardboard (27.3–43.8%). Cardboard that had been buried in landfill for 20 years had a carbon loss of 27.3%—indicating that environmental conditions in the landfill did not support complete decomposition of the available carbon. Thus carbon losses for paper products as measured in bioreactors clearly overestimate those in actual landfills. Carbon losses, as estimated by gas generation, were on average lower than those derived by mass balance. The low carbon loss for particleboard and MDF is consistent with carbon loss for Australian wood types described in previous studies. A factor for carbon loss for combined EWPs and wood in landfills in Australia of 1.3% and for paper of 48% is proposed. Conclusions The new suggested combined decay factor for wood and EWPs represents a significant reduction from the current factor used in the Australian greenhouse gas inventory; whereas the suggested decay factor for paper is similar to the current decay factor. Our results improve current understanding of the carbon dynamics of harvested wood products, and allow more refined estimates of methane emissions from landfills.
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Climate change mitigation effect of harvested wood products in regions of Japan

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3078
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Environmental Impact
Author
Kayo, Chihiro
Tsunetsugu, Yuko
Tonosaki, Mario
Organization
Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
Publisher
Springer
Year of Publication
2015
Format
Journal Article
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Harvested Wood Products
Carbon Storage Effect
Material Substitution Effect
Energy Substitution Effect
Inter-Regional Flow
Production Approach
Research Status
Complete
Series
Carbon Balance and Management
Summary
Background Harvested wood products (HWPs) mitigate climate change through carbon storage, material substitution, and energy substitution. We construct a model to assess the overall climate change mitigation effect (comprising the carbon storage, material substitution, and energy substitution effects) resulting from HWPs in regions of Japan. The model allows for projections to 2050 based on future scenarios relating to the domestic forestry industry, HWP use, and energy use. Results Using the production approach, a nationwide maximum figure of 2.9 MtC year-1 for the HWP carbon storage effect is determined for 2030. The maximum nationwide material substitution effect is 2.9 MtC year-1 in 2050. For the energy substitution effect, a nationwide maximum projection of 4.3 MtC year-1 in 2050 is established, with at least 50 % of this figure derived from east and west Japan, where a large volume of logging residue is generated. For the overall climate change mitigation effect, a nationwide maximum projection of 8.4 MtC year-1 in 2050 is established, equivalent to 2.4 % of Japan’s current carbon dioxide emissions. Conclusions When domestic roundwood production and HWP usage is promoted, an overall climate change mitigation effect is consistently expected to be attributable to HWPs until 2050. A significant factor in obtaining the material substitution effect will be substituting non-wooden buildings with wooden ones. The policy of promoting the use of logging residue will have a significant impact on the energy substitution effect. An important future study is an integrated investigation of the climate change mitigation effect for both HWPs and forests.
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Contribution of forest wood products to negative emissions: historical comparative analysis from 1960 to 2015 in Norway, Sweden and Finland

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3083
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Environmental Impact
Author
Iordan, Cristina-Maria
Hu, Xiangping
Arvesen, Anders
Kauppi, Pekka
Cherubini, Francesco
Organization
Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)
Publisher
Springer
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Journal Article
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Negative CO2 Emission
Forest Wood Products
Carbon Balance
Biomass
Forest Management
Bioenergy
Life-Cycle Assessment
Research Status
Complete
Series
Carbon Balance and Management
Summary
Background Forests and forest products can significantly contribute to climate change mitigation by stabilizing and even potentially decreasing the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Harvested wood products (HWP) represent a common widespread and cost-efficient opportunity for negative emissions. After harvest, a significant fraction of the wood remains stored in HWPs for a period that can vary from some months to many decades, whereas atmospheric carbon (C) is immediately sequestered by vegetation re-growth. This temporal mismatch between oxidation of HWPs and C uptake by vegetation generates a net sink that lasts over time. The role of temporary carbon storage in forest products has been analysed and debated in the scientific literature, but detailed bottom-up studies mapping the fate of harvested materials and quantifying the associated emission profiles at national scales are rare. In this work, we quantify the net CO2 emissions and the temporary carbon storage in forest products in Norway, Sweden and Finland for the period 1960–2015, and investigate their correlation. We use a Chi square probability distribution to model the oxidation rate of C over time in HWPs, taking into consideration specific half-lives of each category of products. We model the forest regrowth and estimate the time-distributed C removal. We also integrate the specific HWP flows with an emission inventory database to quantify the associated life-cycle emissions of fossil CO2, CH4 and N2O. Results We find that assuming an instantaneous oxidation of HWPs would overestimate emissions of about 1.18 billion t CO2 (cumulative values for the three countries over the period 1960–2015).We also find that about 40 years after 1960, the starting year of our analysis, are sufficient to detect signs of negative emissions. The total amount of net CO2 emissions achieved in 2015 are about - 3.8 million t CO2, - 27.9 t CO2 and - 43.6 t CO2 in Norway, Sweden, and Finland, respectively. Conclusion We argue for a more explicit accounting of the actual emission rates from HWPs in carbon balance studies and climate impact analysis of forestry systems and products, and a more transparent inclusion of the potential of HWP as negative emissions in perspective studies and scenarios. Simply assuming that all harvested carbon is instantaneously oxidized can lead to large biases and ultimately overlook the benefits of negative emissions of HWPs.
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The contribution of wood-based construction materials for leveraging a low carbon building sector in europe

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3109
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Environmental Impact
Author
Hildebrandt, Jakob
Hagemann, Nina
Thrän, Daniela
Organization
Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ GmbH
Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ)
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Journal Article
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Engineered Wood Products
Policy Drivers
Scenario Modelling
Potential GHG Emission Savings
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainable Cities and Society
Summary
Increasing the use of engineered wood products in the European Union can contribute to leveraging a shift towards a more emission-efficient production of construction materials. Engineered timber products have already been substituted for carbon and energy intensive concrete and steel-based building constructions, but they still lack the capacities and market demand to be more than just a niche market. However, in the post-crisis period after 2008 the consumption of engineered wood products began rising in Europe. In this paper we analyse options for the future development of engineered wood products taking into consideration policy barriers and technical and environmental potentials for accelerating market introduction as part of a comprehensive scenario approach. For the European building sector we assessed an achievable potential for net carbon storage of about 46 million tonnes CO2-eqv. per year in 2030. To unlock this potential a bundle of instruments is necessary for increasing the market share for engineered wood products against the backdrop of existing policy instruments such as the gradual introduction of stricter rules for carbon emissions trading or more incentives for the voluntary use of innovative wood construction materials.
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The default methods in the 2019 Refinement drastically reduce estimates of global carbon sinks of harvested wood products

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3075
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Environmental Impact
Author
Kayo, Chihiro
Kalt, Gerald
Tsunetsugu, Yuko
Hashimoto, Seiji
Komata, Hirotaka
Noda, Ryu
Oka, Hiroyasu
Organization
Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
Publisher
Springer
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Global Carbon Stocks
Harvested Wood Products
Carbon Removal
Carbon Emission
Research Status
Complete
Series
Carbon Balance and Management
Summary
Background The stock dynamics of harvested wood products (HWPs) are a relevant component of anthropogenic carbon cycles. Generally, HWP stock increases are treated as carbon removals from the atmosphere, while stock decreases are considered emissions. Among the different approaches suggested by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for accounting HWPs in national greenhouse gas inventories, the production approach has been established as the common approach under the Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement. However, the 24th session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change decided that alternative approaches can also be used. The IPCC has published guidelines for estimating HWP carbon stocks and default parameters for the various approaches in the 2006 Guidelines, 2013 Guidance, and 2019 Refinement. Although there are significant differences among the default methods in the three IPCC guidelines, no studies have systematically quantified or compared the results from the different guidelines on a global scale. This study quantifies the HWP stock dynamics and corresponding carbon removals/emissions under each approach based on the default methods presented in each guideline for 235 individual countries/regions. Results We identified relatively good consistency in carbon stocks/removals between the stock-change and the atmospheric flow approaches at a global level. Under both approaches, the methodological and parameter updates in the 2019 Refinement (e.g., considered HWPs, starting year for carbon stocks, and conversion factors) resulted in one-third reduction in carbon removals compared to the 2006 Guidelines. The production approach leads to a systematic underestimation of global carbon stocks and removals because it confines accounting to products derived from domestic harvests and uses the share of domestic feedstock for accounting. The 2013 Guidance and the 2019 Refinement reduce the estimated global carbon removals under the production approach by 15% and 45% (2018), respectively, compared to the 2006 Guidelines. Conclusions Gradual refinements in the IPCC default methods have a considerably higher impact on global estimates of HWP carbon stocks and removals than the differences in accounting approaches. The methodological improvements in the 2019 Refinement halve the global HWP carbon removals estimated in the former version, the 2006 Guidelines.
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Estimation of carbon stocks in harvested wood products of buildings in Japan: flux-data method and direct inventory method

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3084
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Environmental Impact
Author
Matsumoto, Ryoto
Kayo, Chihiro
Organization
Toyko University of Agriculture and Technology
Publisher
Springer
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Harvested Wood Products
Carbon Stocks
Flux-data Method
Direct Inventory Method
Half-life
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Wood Science
Summary
In this study, carbon stocks in harvested wood products (HWPs) of buildings in Japan were estimated using the direct inventory method, which is highly accurate, and the flux-data method, which was proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and is commonly used worldwide. We analyzed the differences between the estimated results and the respective reasons. The results indicate that the flux-data method greatly underestimated the carbon stocks in HWPs of buildings in Japan. In 2019, the values estimated by the flux-data method were only approximately 64% of those estimated by the direct inventory method. The half-lives of HWPs and the estimated continuous rate of change in industrial roundwood consumption proposed by the IPCC were likely the main causes of this difference. As for the decay function, the first-order decay, which is a default function proposed by the IPCC, was considered reliable for the estimations, because the decay function was not the main cause of the obtained difference.
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Experimental Study of Aluminium-Timber Composite Bolted Connections Strengthened with Toothed Plates

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3162
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Author
Chybinski, Marcin
Polus, Lukasz
Organization
Poznan University of Technology
Editor
Garbowski, Tomasz
Marek, Aleksander
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Aluminium-Timber Composite Structures
Aluminium Alloy
Engineering Wood Products
Toothed Plate
Bolted Connection
Shear Connection
Push-out Test
Research Status
Complete
Series
Materials
Summary
This paper presents the first experimental study of the load-slip behaviour of aluminium-timber composite bolted connections reinforced with toothed plates. The effectiveness of the strengthening was evaluated in laboratory push-out tests. The push-out test samples consisted of laminated veneer lumber panels, aluminium alloy I-beams, and bolts (grade 8.8 10 mm × 125 mm and 12 mm × 135 mm bolts, grade 5.8 10 mm × 125 mm and 12 mm × 135 mm bolts). A group of 16 specimens had toothed plates as additional reinforcement, while 16 specimens had no reinforcement. The impact of the bolt diameter (10 and 12 mm) and bolt grade (5.8 and 8.8) on the behaviour of the connections was also analysed. The values of the ultimate load and the slip modulus for the bolted connections with grade 8.8 10 mm and 12 mm bolts and with grade 5.8 12 mm bolts reinforced by toothed-plate connectors were comparable to the values for the non-reinforced connections. This was because, in the case of grade 8.8 10 mm × 125 mm and 12 mm × 135 mm bolts and grade 5.8 12 mm × 135 mm bolts, the laminated veneer lumber (LVL) slabs split both in the reinforced and non-reinforced connections. The toothed-plate connectors reduced timber destruction in the bearing zones in the LVL slabs. However, they did not protect the LVL slabs against splitting. Therefore, the impact of the toothed plate connectors on the stiffness and strength of the bolted connections with grade 8.8 10 mm and 12 mm bolts and with grade 5.8 12 mm bolts analysed in this paper was found to be negligible. In the case of grade 5.8 10 mm bolts, the LVL slabs did not split. The mean slip modulus k0.6 of the connections with grade 5.8 10 mm bolts reinforced with toothed plate connectors was 2.9 times higher than that of the non-reinforced connections. However, the strength of the connections with grade 5.8 10 mm bolts was 1.2 times lower after reinforcing. This was because the shanks of the bolts were sheared faster in the reinforced connections than in the non-reinforced connections as a result of the bolt shanks being under the bearing pressure of the aluminium flange, the LVL slab, and the toothed-plate flange. This situation did not occur for the remaining connections because they had a higher strength (grade 8.8 bolts) or a larger diameter (12 mm), and their bolts were less prone to cutting off. The investigated load–slip curves of the reinforced bolted connections can be used for designing and numerical modelling of aluminium-timber composite beams with this type of connection.
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Glulam and CLT Innovative Manufacturing Processes and Product Development: Fire Performance of Adhesives in CLT. Part 2: Cone Calorimeter Test

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2609
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Fire
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Fire
Design and Systems
Keywords
Adhesive
Heat Delamination Characteristics
Sustainable Construction
Performance
Wood Products
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The main objective of this study is to evaluate the heat release rate and fire growth contribution due to heat delamination characteristics of CLT manufactured with four types of adhesives used for face bonding, when exposed to a constant radiant heat flux. The evaluation is performed using the principles of ISO 5660-1 “Reaction-to-fire tests - Heat release, smoke production and mass loss rate – Part 1: Heat release rate (cone calorimeter method)”. The American version of this test method is ASTM E1354 « Standard Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter ». The long-term objective is to determine which currently accepted test methods allow for the most suitable evaluation of heat delamination characteristics of adhesives used in structural engineered wood products, based on their actual end-use applications (e.g. bending, compression, combined stress, cross-plies, etc.).
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Inward- versus outward-focused bioeconomy strategies for British Columbia’s forest products industry: a harvested wood products carbon storage and emission perspective

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3087
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Environmental Impact
Author
Xie, Sheng H.
Kurz, Werner A.
McFarlane, Paul N.
Organization
Pacifc Institute for Climate Solutions
Publisher
Springer
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Climate Change Mitigation
Emission Reduction
Carbon Dynamics Modeling
Harvested Wood Products
Bioeconomy
Mass Timber Construction
Biofuel
Pulp and Paper
Wood Pellets
Research Status
Complete
Series
Carbon Balance and Management
Summary
Background British Columbia’s (BC) extensive forest resources provide climate change mitigation opportunities that are available to few other jurisdictions. However, as a consequence of the Mountain Pine Beetle outbreak and large-scale wildfires, BC is anticipating reduced roundwood harvest for the next decades. Progress towards more climatically efficient utilization of forest resources is needed. This research quantitatively compared the greenhouse gas emission consequences of nine harvested wood products trade and consumption strategies. Inward-focused strategies use wood products within Canada to achieve emission reduction objectives, while outward-focused strategies encourage exports of wood products. Results In the business-as-usual baseline scenario, average emissions arising from BC-originated harvested wood products between 2016 and 2050 were 40 MtCO2e yr-1. The estimated theoretical boundaries were 11 MtCO2e yr-1 and 54 MtCO2e yr-1, under the scenarios of using all harvests for either construction purposes or biofuel production, respectively. Due to the constrained domestic market size, inward-focused scenarios that were based on population and market capacity achieved 0.3–10% emission reductions compared to the baseline. The international markets were larger, however the emissions varied substantially between 68% reduction and 25% increase depending on wood products’ end uses. Conclusions Future bioeconomy strategies can have a substantial impact on emissions. This analysis revealed that from a carbon storage and emission perspective, it was better to consume BC’s harvests within Canada and only export those products that would be used for long-lived construction applications, provided that construction market access beyond the US was available. However, restricting export of wood products destined for short-lived uses such as pulp and wood pellets would have significant economic and social impacts. On the other hand, inward-focused strategies had a small but politically and environmentally meaningful contribution to BC’s climate action plan. This study also revealed the conflicts between a demand-driven bioeconomy and targeted environmental outcomes. A hierarchical incentive system that could co-exist with other market drivers may help achieve emission reduction goals, but this would require a better quantitative understanding of wood products’ substitution effects. While the analyses were conducted for BC, other regions that are net exporters of wood products may face similar issues.
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20 records – page 1 of 2.