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Improving the Packaging of Crosslaminated Timber: A Master Thesis That Examines the Environment and Methods at Martinsons Såg, Bygdsiljum

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1841
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Industrial Application
Author
Berglund, Viktor
Publisher
Luleå University of Technology
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Industrial Application
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Flow Optimisation
Waste Flows
Waste Reduction
Packaging
Littera
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The work was performed at Martinsons Såg in Bygdsiljum, Sweden. Martinsons is Sweden’s largest producer of cross-laminated timber, crosslam. The staff is divided into two shifts with nine workers each. The production consists of three sections, gluing, CNC and shipping. The\ factory was expanded in early 2017 but did not achieve planned output. The last section, the shipping, is a bottleneck. The object of this thesis is to find a layout that solves the bottleneck and improve the working conditions in the shipping, and the pace of the system should be determined by the first process, the pressing. The results from the examination of the system showed that the real bottleneck in the system was the crane. It was slow and is also used in the waste flows. Two packaging stations for the litteras cannot be used because of the flow of the sawdust, lowering the capacity and flexibility in the packaging. Summarised, the crane could not deal with the demands from the rest of the system. The ergonomic problems consisted of bent and twisted backs while the workers pack the littera. This thesis proposes an investment plan to solve these problems. It consists of two investments that expand the building and expand conveyors, thus removing much of the lifting much lifting with the crane. The waste and littera flows are separated to allow the crane to focus on the main flow of littera
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Free
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Exploratory Study of Salvaged Lumber as Feedstock for Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT)

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2278
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Arbelaez, Raphael E.
Publisher
Oregon State University
Year of Publication
2019
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Design and Systems
Keywords
Waste Reduction
Wood Waste
Salvaged Lumber
Panels
Experimental Panels
Structural
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The United States generates over 70 million tonnes of wood waste annually, with over 27 million tonnes still available for recovery. Current recycling rates for wood waste are in the range of 10% to 15%, which is much lower than other common building materials and indicative of an underutilized resource. Available markets for wood waste depend on material quality, quantity, and accessibility and are primarily for lower value uses. The greatest barrier identified to better wood recovery and reuse is a lack of end markets and market development. Creating a value-added product, in this thesis cross-laminated timber (CLT), using salvaged lumber could expand market opportunities for wood waste. CLT is an engineered wood panel made using layers of lumber glued in perpendicular directions and used as prefabricated walls and floors. For salvaged lumber to be qualified for use in structurally rated CLT panels, it must be graded and selected based on Standards for Performance-Rated Cross-Laminated Timber ANSI/APA PRG 320-2018 lamination requirements. Likewise, American National Standard ANSI/APA PRG 320-2018 specifies the required qualification criteria and benchmarks that panels must meet to be approved as a structurally rated CLT panel. The specific objectives of this thesis were to: (1) determine the residual mechanical properties of salvaged lumber from Portland residential building deconstruction; (2) manufacture different experimental CLT panels using salvaged lumber, virgin lumber, and medium density fiberboard (MDF) at small-scale; and (3) examine and compare experimental CLT panels with ANSI/APA PRG 320-2018 Standards for Performance-Rated Cross-Laminated Timber. These objectives were chosen to answer our hypothesis that salvaged lumber can be used as feedstock for structural cross-laminated timber (CLT). Salvaged lumber provided by Portland deconstruction contractors was evaluated using a Metriguard system for determining stiffness. Grading was successful on 265 boards and 96% met the minimum stiffness requirements for E3 CLT grade laminations in the major direction according to ANSI/APA PRG 320-2018. Three different exploratory 3-ply CLT panels (all salvaged lumber, salvaged lumber outer plys with MDF core, and virgin lumber outer plys with salvaged core) were investigated. All panels were manufactured and tested in accordance with ANSI/APA PRG 320-2018. Testing results and calculations were compared to ANSI/APA PRG 320-2018 qualification criteria and benchmarks for 3-ply E3 grade CLT. All panels met reference values for E3 grade 3-ply CLT in effective flatwise bending moment resistance ((FbS)eff), effective flatwise bending stiffness ((EI)eff), and percent wood failure (WF%). The overall mechanical performance of manufactured panels was good, with an average (FbS)eff of 60.6 106 N-mm/m of width, (EI)eff of 212 10¹° N-mm²/m of width, Vs of 51.1 kN/m of width, and WF% above 99%, but delamination was a problem. Percent delamination calculated from cyclic delamination test measures manufacturing process and quality, and it is possible to achieve better results if panels were made in a professional CLT manufacturing facility. Hence, there is potential that CLT panels made with salvaged lumber are capable of meeting ANSI/APA PRG 320-2018 reference design values for 3-ply E3 grade structural CLT panels, but better manufacturing practices need to be implemented for improved delamination results and more samples need to be tested for stronger statistics.
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Environmental Assessment of the Production and End-of-Life of Cross-Laminated Timber in Western Washington

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2299
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Chen, Cindy Xiaoning
Publisher
University of Washington
Year of Publication
2019
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
End of Life
Life Cycle Analysis
Life-Cycle Assessment
Waste Reduction
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a large-scale engineered wood product that may be used as structural components in buildings. Increase in city population leads to higher demand for tall buildings. CLT has the potential of becoming an important alternative material to concrete in an uprising construction industry. The State of Washington is becoming a leader in adopting CLT in the U.S., but research and data at the regional level are lacking, and few studies have considered the impacts of the treatment of CLT at the end of a building’s service life. This research developed an environmental assessment to investigate the environmental impacts of CLT over the course of resources extraction, manufacturing, transportation, and end-of-life (EoL) using life cycle assessment (LCA). The role of facility location and wood species mix involved in the life cycle of CLT are considered. This research also investigated the role of CLT as a construction material in reducing C&D waste in Washington. EoL scenarios are developed based on current waste treatment scenarios in Washington. Important results from this research included: (a) carefully selecting the facilities and wood species can significantly reduce the environmental impacts of CLT production, (b) applying CLT to partially replace concrete and steel in buildings can reduce waste generation associated with C&D, and (c) the environmental impacts associated with CLT at the EoL stage may be significantly reduced when landfill disposal is avoided and that CLT panels are reused. This research contributes references and new knowledge associated with CLT to the construction industry, forestry industry, policy-makers, as well as the academic community, and helps to build a more resilient forest industry.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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