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Basis of Design Principles for Timber Structures

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1939
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Serviceability
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Abeysekera, Ishan
Baravalle, Michele
Brandner, Reinhard
Colling, François
Fink, Gerhard
Hamm, Patricia
Hochreiner, Georg
Honfi, Dániel
Ilharco, Tiago
Jockwer, Robert
Kleinhenz, Miriam
Kohler, Jochen
Lawrence, Andrew
Marcroft, Julian
Mikoschek, Michael
Toratti, Tomi
Editor
Fink, Gerhard
Honfi, Dániel
Kohler, Jochen
Dietsch, Philipp
Publisher
COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Book/Guide
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Serviceability
Design and Systems
Keywords
Eurocode
Deflection
Vibrations
Serviceability Limit States
Eurocode 5
Dowel Type Fastener
Failure Behavior
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This report represents the results of the activities performed in working group 1, Basis of Design. The most important task of working group 1 was the defragmentation and harmonization of techniques and methods that are necessary to prove the reliable, safe and economic application of timber materials or products in the construction industry. This report is structured into five parts. At first general principles regarding the design formats are addressed (Part I). Afterwords timber specific aspects regarding code calibration (Part II) and serviceability (Part III) are summarized. In Part IV other demanding issues for the implementation into Eurocode 5 are addressed. Here also summaries of joint activities with other working groups on cross laminated timber and timber connections are presented. The report concludes with a guideline for data analysis (Part V).
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Cost Factor Analysis for Timber–Concrete Composite with a Lightweight Plywood Rib Floor Panel

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3100
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Cost
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Floors
Author
Buka-Vaivade, Karina
Serdjuks, Dmitrijs
Pakrastins, Leonids
Organization
Riga Technical University
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Floors
Topic
Cost
Keywords
Adhesive Connection
Plywood Rib Panel
Floor Vibrations
Rigid Connection
Fibre Reinforced Concrete
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
With the growing importance of the principle of sustainability, there is an increasing interest in the use of timber–concrete composite for floors, especially for medium and large span buildings. Timber–concrete composite combines the better properties of both materials and reduces their disadvantages. The most common choice is to use a cross-laminated timber panel as a base for a timber–concrete composite. But a timber–concrete composite solution with plywood rib panels with an adhesive connection between the timber base and fibre reinforced concrete layer is offered as the more cost-effective constructive solution. An algorithm for determining the rational parameters of the panel cross-section has been developed. The software was written based on the proposed algorithm to compare timber–concrete composite panels with cross-laminated timber and plywood rib panel bases. The developed algorithm includes recommendations of forthcoming Eurocode 5 for timber–concrete composite design and an innovative approach to vibration calculations. The obtained data conclude that the proposed structural solution has up to 73% lower cost and up to 71% smaller self-weight. Thus, the proposed timber–concrete composite construction can meet the needs of society for cost-effective and sustainable innovative floor solutions.
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Damping in Timber Structures

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue106
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Floors
Beams
Author
Labonnote, Nathalie
Organization
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Year of Publication
2012
Format
Thesis
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Floors
Beams
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Damping
Model
Panels
Spruce
Testing
Vibrations
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Key point to development of environmentally friendly timber structures, appropriate to urban ways of living, is the development of high-rise timber buildings. Comfort properties are nowadays one of the main limitations to tall timber buildings, and an enhanced knowledge on damping phenomena is therefore required, as well as improved prediction models for damping. The aim of this work has consequently been to estimate various damping quantities in timber structures. In particular, models have been derived for predicting material damping in timber members, beams or panels, or in more complex timber structures, such as floors. Material damping is defined as damping due to intrinsic material properties, and used to be referred to as internal friction. In addition, structural damping, defined as damping due to connections and friction in-between members, has been estimated for timber floors.
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Designing Pedestrian Stress-Laminated Timber Bridges for Multiple Spans: Parameters Related to Dynamic Response

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2576
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Design and Systems
Application
Bridges and Spans

Dynamic Performance of Timber and Timber-Concrete Composite Flooring Systems

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue229
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Connections
Serviceability
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Floors
Author
Rijal, Rajendra
Organization
University of Technology Sydney
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Thesis
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Floors
Topic
Connections
Serviceability
Keywords
Connections
Costs
Fasteners
Finite Element Model
Long Span
Multi-Storey
Sustainability
Vibrations
Small Scale
Static Load Tests
Damage Index (DI) Method
Loss of Composite Action Index (LCAI)
Research Status
Complete
Summary
In recent years, there has been an increasing trend in Australia and New Zealand towards the use of long-span timber and timber-concrete composite (TCC) flooring systems for the construction of multi-storey timber buildings. The popularity of these flooring systems is because of their low cost, easy construction and the use of environmentally sustainable materials. Due to their light-weight, such long-span floors are however highly susceptible to vibrations induced by service loads. Although longspan timber and TCC flooring systems can easily be designed to resist the static loads using currently available design guidelines, it is crucial to also investigate the dynamic behaviour of these floors as the occupant discomfort due to excessive vibration may govern the design. Moreover, many structural failures are caused by dynamic interactions due to resonances, which highlight the importance of investigating the dynamic behaviour of flooring systems. To date, there are very limited design guidelines to address the vibration in long-span floors, especially composite floors, due to a lack of sufficient investigation. In 2009, a research consortium named Structural Timber Innovation Company (STIC) was founded, with the aim to address various issues encountered with structural timber buildings including timber and TCC flooring systems. STIC is conducting Research and Development (R & D) work in a number of key areas to provide a new competitive edge for commercial and industrial structural timber buildings. The R & D work is undertaken with three parallel objectives at three universities, namely, the University of Technology Sydney (UTS), the University of Canterbury (UC) and the University of Auckland (UA). The focus of UTS is the assessment of various performance issues of long-span timber only and TCC flooring systems for multi-storey timber buildings. The work presented in this thesis deals with the investigation of the dynamic performance of timber only and TCC flooring systems, which is one of the sub-objectives of the research focus at UTS. In particular, the presented research assesses the dynamic performance of long-span timber and TCC flooring systems using different experimental und numerical test structures. For the experimental investigations, experimental modal testing and analysis is executed to determine the modal parameters (natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes) of various flooring systems. For the numerical investigations, finite element models are calibrated against experimental results, and are utilised for parametric studies for flooring systems of different sizes. Span tables are generated for both timber and TCC flooring systems that can be used in the design of long-span flooring systems to satisfy the serviceability fundamental frequency requirement of 8 Hz or above. For floors where vibration is deemed to be critical, the dynamic assessment using the 8 Hz frequency requirement alone may not be sufficient and additional dynamic criteria such as response factor, peak acceleration and unit load deflection need to be satisfied. To predict the fundamental frequency of various TCC beams and timber floor modules (beams), five different analytical models are utilised and investigated. To predict the cross-sectional characteristics of TCC systems and to identify the effective flexural stiffness of partially composite beams, the “Gamma method” is utilised. Essential input parameters for the “Gamma method” are the shear connection properties (strength, serviceability stiffness and ultimate stiffness) that must be identified. Therefore, a number of experimental tests are carried out using small scale specimens to identify strength and serviceability characteristics of four different types of shear connection systems and three of them were adopted in the TCC beams. The connections included two types of mechanical fasteners (normal wood screw and SFS screw) and two types of notched connectors (bird-mouth and trapezoidal shape) with coach screw. Traditionally, the composite action of a system is determined from static load testing using deflection measurements. However, static load testing is expensive, time consuming and difficult to perform on existing flooring systems. Therefore, two novel methods are developed in this thesis that determines the degree of composite action of timber composite flooring systems using only measurements from non-destructive dynamic testing. The core of both methods is the use of an existing mode-shape-based damage detection technique, namely, the Damage Index (DI) method to derive the loss of composite action indices (LCAIs) named as LCAI1 and LCAI2. The DI method utilises modal strain energies derived from mode shape measurements of a flooring system before and after failure of shear connectors. The proposed methods are tested and validated on a numerical and experimental timber composite beam structure consisting of two LVL components (flange and web). To create different degrees of composite action, the beam is tested with different numbers of shear connectors to simulate the failure of connection screws. The results acquired from the proposed dynamic-based method are calibrated to make them comparable to traditional static-based composite action results. It is shown that the two proposed methods can successfully be used for timber composite structures to determine the composite action using only mode shapes measurements from dynamic testing.
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Efficient Measurement of Elastic Constants of Cross Laminated Timber using Modal Testing

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue117
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Zhou, Jianhui
Chui, Ying Hei
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Elasticity
Modal Testing
Modulus of Elasticity
Natural Frequency
Testing
Vibrations
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 10-14, 2014, Quebec City, Canada
Summary
It has been shown that measurement of elastic constants of orthotropic wood-based panel products can be more efficiently measured by modal testing technique. Identification of vibration modes and corresponding natural frequencies is key to the application of modal testing technique. This process is generally tedious and requires a number of measurement locations for mode shape identification. In this study, a simplified method for frequency identification was developed which will facilitate the adoption of the vibration-based testing technique for laboratory and industrial application. In the method, the relationship between frequency order and mode order is first studied considering the boundary condition, elastic properties of the orthotropic panel. An algorithm is proposed to predict the frequency values and mode indices based on corresponding normalized sensitivity to elastic constants, initial estimates of orthotropic ratios and measured fundamental natural frequency. The output from the algorithm can be used for identification of sensitive natural frequencies from up to three frequency spectra. Then the algorithm is integrated with the elastic calculation algorithm to extract the elastic constants from the sensitive frequencies. The elastic constants of cross laminated timber panels were measured by the proposed method. The moduli of elasticity agree well with static testing results. The calculated in-plane shear modulus was found to be within the expected range.
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Experimental Evaluations of Material Damping in Timber Beams of Structural Dimensions

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue574
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Author
Labonnote, Nathalie
Rønnquist, Anders
Arne Malo, Kjell
Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Damping
Flexural Vibrations
Research Status
Complete
Series
Wood Science and Technology
Summary
Understanding the inherent damping mechanisms of floor vibrations has become a matter of increasing importance following the development of new composite floor layouts and increased span. The present study focuses on the evaluation of material damping in timber beam specimens with dimensions that are typical of common timber floor structures. Using the impact test method, 11 solid wood beams and 11 glulam beams made out of Norway Spruce (Picea abies) were subjected to flexural vibrations. The tests involved different spans and orientations. A total of 420 material damping evaluations were performed, and the results are presented as mean values for each configuration along with important statistical indicators to quantify their reliability. The consistency of the experimental method was validated with respect to repeatability and reproducibility. General trends found an increasing damping ratio for higher modes, shorter spans, and edgewise orientations. It is concluded from the results that material damping of timber beams of structural dimensions is governed by shear deformation, which can be expressed more conveniently with respect to the specific mode shape and its derivatives.
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Guidelines Definition for In-Situ Vibration Measurements of Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1980
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Floors
Author
Lanata, Francesca
Boudaud, Clément
Amouzou, Kodzo Vioto
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Floors
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Vibrations
TCC
Guidelines Definition
Users' Comfort
In-Situ Measurements
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Summary
As an attempt to find a correlation between dynamic response of timber and timber-concrete composite floors and users’ comfort feeling, an in-situ measurements campaign will be carried out within the framework of a research project started at ESB, France. A large variability of buildings typology, as multi-unit housing, open-space offices and long-span offices with partition walls will be tested. The first experimental experience has shown that choices of means of excitation, type and positioning of sensors, data acquisition device, data analyses methods, depend on the floor configuration. Using in-situ test campaign as a database to compare different measurement protocols and assess the influence of different in-situ conditions, the paper will propose some guidelines for the measurement architecture, the equipment choice and the data analysis to be performed according to each building configuration.
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A higher-order plate theory for the analysis of vibrations of thick orthotropic laminates

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3204
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Furtmüller, Thomas
Adam, Christoph
Organization
University of Innsbruck
Publisher
Springer
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Plate Theory
Analytical Solution
Flexural Vibrations
Research Status
Complete
Series
Acta Mechanica
Summary
In this contribution, flexural vibrations of linear elastic laminates composed of thick orthotropic layers, such as cross-laminated timber, are addressed. For efficient computation, an equivalent single-layer plate theory with eight kinematic degrees of freedom is derived, both in terms of equations of motion at the continuum level and in terms of a finite element representation. The validity of the plate theory is demonstrated by comparing natural frequencies of a simply supported plate over a wide frequency range for which an analytical solution is available. Furthermore, the influence of individual material properties on the accuracy of the plate theory is investigated, demonstrating its broad applicability. The influence of material orientation on the accuracy of the plate theory is examined by comparative finite element simulations. It is shown that, for cross-ply laminates, the plate theory is valid for elements oriented at any angle to the material principal axes.
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Lateral stiffening systems for tall timber buildings – tube-in-tube systems

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3268
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Binck, Charles
Sixie, Alex
Frangi, Andrea
Organization
ETH Zurich
Publisher
Taylor&Francis Online
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Tall Timber Buildings
Tube-in-tube Systems
Wind-induced Vibrations
Moment-resisting Joints
Serviceability Limit State
Research Status
Complete
Series
Wood Material Science & Engineering
Summary
In this paper, an adaptable and architecturally flexible lateral stiffening system for tall timber buildings between 50 and 147 m is developed and investigated. The system is based on a tube-in-tube concept. The internal tube consists of a braced timber core, and the external tube consists of a frame structure with semi-rigid beam-column joints in the façade. Based on a finite element framework, more than 500 000 simulations with different configurations are carried out to assess the performance of the lateral stiffening system subjected to wind loading. The resulting data is used to assess the feasibility of the tube-in-tube system and stiffness requirements for the beam-column joints.
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12 records – page 1 of 2.