Knots are usually regarded as defects when grading lumber. In order to evaluate a member under out-of-plane loading, shear strength is one of the major mechanical properties, specifically, rolling shear (RS) strength is one of the critical mechanical properties of Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT), which determines the flexural strength of CLT under short-span bending loads. Lower grade lumber with a higher percentage of knots is recommended to be utilized for the cross-layer laminations which are mainly responsible for resisting shear stresses. Firstly, shear tests were performed in order to evaluate the effect of knots on longitudinal shear strength using shear blocks. After that, the effect of knots on the RS strength of 3-ply southern yellow pine CLT were investigated by experimental tests and an analytical model. Center-point bending tests with a span-to-depth ratio of 6 and two-plate shear tests with a loading angle of 14° were conducted on six CLT configurations composed of different types of cross layer laminations: clear flatsawn lumber with/without pith, lumber with sound knots with/without pith, and lumber with decayed knots with/without pith. The shear analogy method was implemented to evaluate the RS strength values from the bending test results, which were also compared against the results from the two-plate shear tests. It was found that: (1) The shear blocks containing sound knots had higher shear strength than matched clear shear blocks, the shear blocks containing unsound knots had lower shear strength than the matched clear shear blocks. (2) CLT specimens with cross-layer laminations with either sound knots or decayed knots had higher RS strength. (3) In general, the shear analogy method underestimated the RS strength of CLT specimens containing knots and pith.
The rolling shear modulus is very low, leading to rolling shear failure in the cross layer of cross-laminated timber (CLT). The overall objective of this thesis work was to develop an appropriate methodology for measuring the rolling shear properties of CL T. This research consists of three article format chapters, which were aimed at: 1) obtaining a better understanding of advantages and disadvantages of using the bending test and twoplate shear test for determining the rolling shear properties of 3-layer CLT, 2) investigating the influence of growth ring orientation and laminates thickness of cross layer on the rolling shear properties, and 3) verifying the feasibility of two-plate shear test method for measuring the rolling shear properties of 3-layer CL T beam. It is recommended that the two-plate shear test be used as a testing method for measuring the rolling shear modulus of a cross layer, which can be used to calculate the deflection of a 3-layer CLT beam using the shear analogy method at a given span-to-depth ratio ranging from 6 to 50. An adjustment factor (a) was proposed to predict the deflection under the centre-point bending test at various span-to-depth ratios. The two-plate shear test method can also be used to measure the rolling shear strength, and can provide a reasonable estimate of the load-carrying capacity of 3-layer CLT beam at a relatively large span-to-depth ratio, but a conservative estimate at a small span-to-depth ratio. In summary, it shall be feasible to adopt the two-plate shear test for determining the rolling shear modulus and strength of cross layer in CLT.
The design and application of cross laminated timber (CLT) is s trongly influenced by rolling shear properties of cross layers. Hence, predicting the mechanical behaviour of CLT requires accurate information about its rolling shear properties. In this study, black spruce wood laminates with three different growth ring orientations (flat sawn, in-between, quarter sawn) were edge glued to produce wooden cross layer (WCL). Two-plate shear tests were carried out on WCL to investigate the influence of growth ring orientation on the rolling shear properties. The experimental results showed that the growth ring orientation had a significant effect on rolling shear modulus of WCL, however, almost no effect on the rolling shear strength. The WCL of in-between end grain had the maximum rolling shear modulus of 89MPa and rolling sh ear strength of 2.13 MPa.