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32 records – page 1 of 4.

Advanced Timber Construction Industry: A Review of 350 Multi-Storey Timber Projects from 2000–2021

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3006
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Svatoš-Ražnjevic, Hana
Orozco, Luis
Menges, Achim
Organization
University of Stuttgart
Editor
Brandner, Reinhard
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Multi-storey Timber Construction
Timber Buildings
Mass Timber Construction
Survey
Typologies
Trends and Perspectives
Timber Morphologies
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
Throughout the last two decades the timber building sector has experienced a steady growth in multi-storey construction. Although there has been a growing number of research focused on trends, benefits, and disadvantages in timber construction from various technical perspectives, so far there is no extensive literature on the trajectory of emerging architectural typologies. This paper presents an examination of architectural variety and spatial possibilities in current serial and modular multi-storey timber construction. It aims to draw a parallel between architectural characteristics and their relation to structural systems in timber. The research draws from a collection of 350 contemporary multi-storey timber building projects between 2000 and 2021. It consists of 300 built projects, 12 projects currently in construction, and 38 design proposals. The survey consists of quantitative and qualitative project data, as well as classification of the structural system, material, program, massing, and spatial organization of the projects. It then compares the different structural and design aspects to achieve a comprehensive overview of possibilities in timber construction. The outcome is an identification of the range of morphologies and a better understanding of the design space in current serial and modular multi-storey mass timber construction.
Online Access
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An Empirical Analysis of Barriers to Building Information Modelling (BIM) Implementation in Wood Construction Projects: Evidence from the Swedish Context

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3155
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
General Information
Author
Gharaibeh, Lina
Matarneh, Sandra T.
Eriksson, Kristina
Lantz, Björn
Organization
University West
Al-Ahliyya Amman University
Editor
Ullah, Fahim
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Topic
General Information
Keywords
Building Information Modelling
Wood Construction
Grounded Theory
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
Building information modelling is gradually being recognised by the architecture, engineering, construction, and operation industry as a valuable opportunity to increase the efficiency of the built environment. Focusing on the wood construction industry, BIM is becoming a necessity; this is due to its high level of prefabrication and complex digital procedures using wood sawing machines and sophisticated cuttings. However, the full implementation of BIM is still far from reality. The main objective of this paper is to explore the barriers affecting BIM implementation in the Swedish construction industry. An extensive literature review was conducted to extract barriers hindering the implementation of BIM in the construction industry. Secondly, barriers to the implementation of BIM in the wood construction industry in Sweden were extracted using the grounded theory methodology to analyse expert input on the phenomenon of low BIM implementation in the wood construction industry in Sweden. Thirty-four barriers were identified. The analysis of this study also led to the development of a conceptual model that recommended solutions to overcome the barriers identified to help maximise BIM implementation within the wood construction industry. Identifying the main barriers affecting BIM implementation is essential to guide organisational decisions and drive policy, particularly for governments that are considering articulating regulations to expand BIM implementation.
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Free
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Circular economy in wood construction – Additive manufacturing of fully recyclable walls made from renewables: Proof of concept and preliminary data

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3129
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Environmental Impact
Application
Walls
Author
Kromoser, B.
Reichenbach, S.
Hellmayr, R.
Myna, R.
Wimmer, R.
Organization
University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Application
Walls
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Circular Economy
Wood Construction
Additive Manufacturing
3D printing
Recycling
Life Cycle Assessment
Research Status
Complete
Series
Construction and Building Materials
Summary
Additive manufacturing of fully recyclable walls, made of a composite of renewable secondary resources, offers the wood construction industry the possibility to manufacture structures within a circular economy. The newly developed composite material is extruded in a dry state before using water and heat to ensure proper bonding. Following a summary of the state of the art, concepts for material, manufacturing, application and recycling are presented. First preliminary experiments and an evaluation of the environmental impact show the potential of the innovative strategy. Considering the obtained results, current issues and future research demand are presented.
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Free
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The Design of Mass Timber Panels as Heat-Exchangers (Dynamic Insulation)

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2971
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Energy Performance
Author
Craig, Salmaan
Halepaska, Anna
Ferguson, Katherine
Rains, Preston
Elbrecht, Jacob
Freear, Andrew
Kennedy, David
Moe, Kiel
Organization
McGill University
Auburn University
Editor
Schlueter, Arno
Publisher
Frontiers
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Topic
Energy Performance
Keywords
Biogenic Carbon
Carbon Utilization
Low Carbon Materials
Integrated Materials Design
Mass Timber Construction
Sustainable Construction
Thermally Activated Building System
Buoyancy Ventilation
Research Status
Complete
Series
Frontiers in Built Environment
Summary
Mass timber products, together with careful forestry management, could help decarbonize the construction industry. These products must be long-lasting, to safely store atmospheric carbon for decades or centuries, and multi-functional, to displace materials and equipment that are emissions-intensive. This paper shows how to optimize mass timber panels as heat-exchangers, suggesting how to eliminate insulation while simplifying HVAC systems. Test panels measured the heat-exchange in steady and transient conditions, when the ventilation was driven by a fan or by thermal buoyancy. The total heat transfer was predicted accurately by theory in all cases. Further investigation is needed to understand the possible heat-recovery effects at the exterior surface.
Online Access
Free
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Design of Multiple Bolted Connections for Laminated Veneer Lumber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue252
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Connections
Design and Systems
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Author
Yeh, Borjen
Rammer, Douglas
Linville, Jeff
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Topic
Connections
Design and Systems
Keywords
National Design Specifications for Wood Construction (NDSR)
Failure Modes
Bolted Connection
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 10-14, 2014, Quebec City, Canada
Summary
The design of multiple bolted connections in accordance with Appendix E of the National Design Specification for Wood Construction (NDS) has incorporated provisions for evaluating localized member failure modes of row and group tear-out when the connections are closely spaced. Originally based on structural glued laminated timber (glulam) members made with all L1 Douglas fir-Larch laminating lumber, the NDS provisions were confirmed by additional analysis, which indicates the applicability of the provisions to glulam with reduced design shear values. Due to the similarity to glulam in the grain orientation and layup strategy, laminated veneer lumber (LVL) is subject to similar failure modes. As a result, a study was initiated by APA – The Engineered Wood Association and the LVL industry, in collaboration with the Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to evaluate if a reduced design shear stress is necessary for LVL under similar multiple bolted connection configurations. This paper describes the test results obtained from the study, which indicate that an adequate load factor exists for LVL multiple bolted connections without a reduction in the LVL design shear stress when designed in accordance with Appendix E of the NDS.
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Free
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Development of a Clear Intumescent Coating for Mass Timber Construction: Fire Protection and Interior Application

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2815
Topic
Fire
Application
Ceilings
Walls
Columns
Organization
National Research Council of Canada
Application
Ceilings
Walls
Columns
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Intumescent Coating
Mass Timber
Encapsulated Mass Timber Construction
Encapsulation
Fire Resistance Rating
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Project contact is Rokib Hassan at the National Research Council of Canada
Summary
Phase two of a four-phased research project, with the overarching goal of developing transparent intumescent coating (TIC) for mass timber construction, which would be technology certified, IP protected and licensed out. The use of TIC would ensure that fire resistance rating requirements are met while reducing the need for encapsulation, resulting in increased overall aesthetics provided by timber. Phase two focuses on demonstrating a proof-of-concept on a small scale and optimizing the TIC formula and coating thickness based on the testing results. Small scale tests will be conducted to measure fire resistance, weatherability and fire toxicity.
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Development of Novel Standardized Structural Timber Elements Using Wood-Wood Connections

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2747
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Design and Systems
Connections
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Gamerro, Julien
Publisher
Lausanne, EPFL
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Design and Systems
Connections
Keywords
Timber Construction
Connections
Digital Fabrication
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly
Structural Design
Structural Frameworks
Semi-Rigid Connection
Experimental
Shear Strength
Compression Strength
Wood-Wood Connections
Bending Test
Bending Stiffness
Numerical Model
Load Carrying Capacity
Slip Modulus
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Traditional wood-wood connections, widely used in the past, have been progressively replaced by steel fasteners and bonding processes in modern timber constructions. However, the emergence of digital fabrication and innovative engineered timber products have offered new design possibilities for wood-wood connections. The design-to-production workflow has evolved considerably over the last few decades, such that a large number of connections with various geometries can now be easily produced. These connections have become a cost-competitive alternative for the edgewise connection of thin timber panels. Several challenges remain in order to broaden the use of this specific joining technique into common timber construction practice: (1) prove the applicability at the building scale, (2) propose a standardized construction system, (3) develop a convenient calculation model for practice, and (4) investigate the mechanical behavior of wood-wood connections. The first building implementation of digitally produced through-tenon connections for a folded-plate structure is presented in this work. Specific computational tools for the design and manufacture of more than 300 different plates were efficiently applied in a multi-stakeholder project environment. Cross-laminated timber panels were investigated for the first time, and the potential of such connections was demonstrated for different engineered timber products. Moreover, this work demonstrated the feasibility of this construction system at the building scale. For a more resilient and locally distributed construction process, a standardized system using through-tenon connections and commonly available small panels was developed to reconstitute basic housing components. Based on a case-study with industry partners, the fabrication and assembly processes were validated with prototypes made of oriented strand board. Their structural performance was investigated by means of a numerical model and a comparison with glued and nailed assemblies. The results showed that through-tenon connections are a viable alternative to commonly used mechanical fasteners. So far, the structural analysis of such construction systems has been mainly achieved with complex finite element models, not in line with the simplicity of basic housing elements. A convenient calculation model for practice, which can capture the semi-rigid behavior of the connections and predict the effective bending stiffness, was thus introduced and subjected to large-scale bending tests. The proposed model was in good agreement with the experimental results, highlighting the importance of the connection behavior. The in-plane behavior of through-tenon connections for several timber panel materials was characterized through an experimental campaign to determine the load-carrying capacity and slip modulus required for calculation models. Based on the test results, existing guidelines were evaluated to safely apply these connections in structural elements while a finite element model was developed to approximate their performance. This work constitutes a firm basis for the optimization of design guidelines and the creation of an extensive database on digitally produced wood-wood connections. Finally, this thesis provides a convenient design framework for the newly developed standardized timber construction system and a solid foundation for research into digitally produced wood-wood connections.
Online Access
Free
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Durable Timber Bridges - Final Report and Guidelines

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2133
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Design and Systems
Moisture
Serviceability
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Bridges and Spans

Encapsulated Mass Timber Construction Char Rate Analysis

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2387
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Walls

Encapsulated Mass Timber Construction - Cost Comparison Canada: Construction, Time & Maintenance Cost-Benefit Report

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2359
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Columns
Floors
Organization
Hanscomb
Publisher
National Research Council Canada
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Columns
Floors
Topic
Cost
Keywords
Encapsulated Mass Timber Construction
Building Code
Time
Construction Time
Construction Cost
Maintenance Cost
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The Task Group on Combustible Construction is in the process of evaluating a proposed code change request related to buildings of encapsulated mass timber construction (EMTC). As part of the analysis of the code change request, an impact analysis is required that includes a cost-benefit analysis. Hanscomb was hired to provide a cost-benefit analysis and to compare the estimated value of the following: 1. The cost of constructing a building of mass timber (unprotected) versus a building constructed of encapsulated mass timber (e.g. mass timber protected with a double layer of Type X gypsum board) versus a traditional concrete and steel building. 2. The time to build a building of mass timber construction (unprotected) versus a building of encapsulated mass timber construction versus a traditional concrete and steel building. 3. The annual maintenance costs of building of mass timber construction versus a building of encapsulated mass timber construction versus a traditional concrete and steel building. For the purposes of this study two sets of conceptual floor plans and elevations have been created: 1. A 12 storey building with a Group C major occupancy (residential) where each storey is 6,000 m2 in floor area. 2. A 12 storey building with a Group D major occupancy (office) where each storey is 7,200 m2 in floor area.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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32 records – page 1 of 4.