A balanced combination of heat flows creates suitable conditions for thermal comfort—a factor contributing to the quality of the internal environment of buildings. The presented analysis of selected thermal-technical parameters is up-to-date and suitable for verifying the parameters of building constructions. The research also applied a methodology for examining the acoustic parameters of structural parts of buildings in laboratory conditions. In this research, selected variant solutions of perimeter walls based on prefab cross laminated timber were investigated in terms of acoustic and thermal-technical properties. The variants structures were investigated in laboratory but also in model conditions. The results of the analyses show significant differences between the theoretical or declared parameters and the values measured in laboratory conditions. The deviations of experimental measurements from the calculated or declared parameters were not as significant for variant B as they were for variant A. These findings show that for these analyzed sandwich structures based on wood, it is not always possible to reliably declare calculated values of thermal-technical and acoustic parameters. It is necessary to thoroughly examine such design variants, which would contribute to the knowledge in this field of research of construction systems based on wood.
The aims of the paper were to clarify whether office buildings in the severe cold and cold regions are overheating, especially those with natural ventilation, and whether potential overheating is related to the building materials. The severe cold and cold regions of China were considered to be cool regions during summer. However, with global warming, improvements in the thermal performance of the building envelope and the urban heat island effect, office buildings in these regions are showing different degrees of overheating during summer. Two office building materials commonly used in this area, cross laminated timber (CLT) and concrete block, were simulated in this study. With reference to the overheating standard, the degree of overheating in six cities in the severe cold and cold regions was quantitatively analysed and the extent of overheating for the two building materials was compared. Finally, the influence of thermal insulation on building overheating is discussed, and some suggestions are put forward to improve the relevant national regulations in China. The results show that office buildings in the severe cold and cold regions experience overheating during summer, and CLT buildings are more prone to overheating than concrete buildings during summer. This is attributable to the different thermal mass of the materials. Thick insulation does increase the risk of building overheating, and the effect on concrete buildings is more pronounced. Concrete buildings with an insulation layer can experience overheating for 27–71 h more than buildings without an insulation layer. Insulation on CLT buildings only results in an increase of 11–37 h. When considering the current situation with summer overheating in the severe cold and cold regions, relevant codes should also be modified and improved accordingly to guide building design, so as to achieve low-carbon and energy-saving goals.
There has been no research to date exploring whether timber products can provide effective thermal capacitance in residential or commercial construction. This research is exploring the use of unique mass-timber products to provide a new form of thermal performance capacitance
within the built fabric of new and existing homes. The development of mass timber products is a new paradigm in material and building science research in Australia, requiring the accounting for carbon emissions, carbon sequestration, material embodied energy and material thermal properties for this renewable resource. This paper focuses on the results from preliminary building simulation studies encompassing house energy rating simulations and a comparative analysis of embodied energy and carbon storage for a series of house plans in Australia.
The thermal refurbishment of the building stock is one of the most fundamental challenges of sustainable urban development. Particularly the use of natural and local materials gets an increasing relevance, regarding the embodied energy. The focus of this work is the development of systematised solutions for thermal refurbishment with...
Multiple high quality wood waste from a window manufacturer is identified and collected. Eco-sustainable panels, with promising acoustic and thermal insulating performance, were then fabricated. The available wood is of different tree species (pine, oak, and mahogany) and size (pieces of wood, mixed coarse chips, and mixed fine chips). Moreover, scraps of olive tree pruning from local areas were collected for reuse. The aim of the research is to assembly panels (300 × 300 mm2) both with different techniques (hand-made and hot-pressed) and type of adhesive (vinyl and flour glues) and to evaluate their thermal, acoustic, and environmental performance. All the panels present thermal and acoustic performance comparable with the similar ones available in the literature or with commercial solutions. The thermal conductivity varies in the 0.071 to 0.084 W/mK range at an average temperature of 10 °C, depending on the tree species, the assembly technique, and regardless of the type of adhesive used. Oak wood panels are characterized by both better sound absorption (a peak value of 0.9, similar to pine pressed sample with flour glue) and insulation (transmission loss up to 11 dB at 1700 Hz) properties. However, their added value is the low environmental impact assessed through life cycle analysis in compliance with ISO 14040, especially for panels assembled with natural glue.
Building energy regulations have been changing quite quickly across Canada to meet the mandates of governments to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Canadian model energy codes including the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC)—9.36. Energy Efficiency and the National Energy Code of Canada for Buildings (NECB) have been incrementally raising energy efficiency requirements, moving towards being net-zero energy ready. The Government of British Columbia enacted the Energy Step Code in 2017, so new construction will reach net-zero energy ready by 2032. The Canadian Home Builders Association (CHBA) has recently launched its Net Zero Home Labelling Program, providing two-tiered technical requirements for Net Zero and Net Zero Ready Homes.
Most of the Canadian energy codes and programs take an “envelope first” approach, as reducing heat transmission and air leakage through the building envelope is the most effective method to minimize energy loss. For example, the City of Vancouver requires RSI 3.85 (R22) effective for walls of residential buildings up to six storeys and mandatory airtightness testing.
Industrialized construction brings a revolution to the construction sector by mass producing panelized assemblies and modular units, which are able to provide higher levels of thermal insulation and airtightness, along with improved construction quality and efficiency, and a solution to labour shortages in the construction industry.
This document has been developed to facilitate industrialized construction for wood-based building envelopes (exterior wall, roof) to meet increased energy efficiency requirements.
The challenges for the use of the cross-laminated timber (CLT) system in the Brazilian agricultural market are significant. This study evaluated the thermal performance of fiber cement tiles associated with a CLT non-conventional structure compared to those of ceramic, fiber cement and aluminum roof tiles based on following thermal comfort indexes (i.e., black globe humidity index (BGHI), radiant heat load (RHL) and specific enthalpy) using physical conventional models of reduced-scale rural facilities under summer conditions. The non-conventional CLT model comprised closing walls and a lining that form a self-supporting structure with few air inlets. This model presented reduced thermal comfort indexes compared to the other conventional roofs. Moreover, the CLT model has an average black globe temperature (Tbg) of 32.9 °C, which was lower at all times compared to those of the other roofs. In conclusion, the roof with fiber cement tiles associated with the CLT structure exhibited the best performance in terms of thermal comfort, followed by the ceramic, fiber cement, and aluminum tiles. The study results allow a better understanding of the opportunities for CLT usage.
Current environmental crisis calls for sustainable solutions in the building industry. One of the possible solutions is to incorporate timber-framed constructions into designs. Among other benefits, these structures are well established in many countries, originating in traditional building systems. This paper focuses on experimental timber-frame walls. Different wall assemblies vary in thermal insulation materials and their combinations. We investigated ten experimental wall structures that have been exposed to natural external boundary conditions since 2015. The emphasis was on their state in terms of visual deterioration, mass moisture content, and thermal conductivity coefficient. We detected several issues, including defects caused by inappropriate realization, causing local moisture increase. Material settlement in loose-fill thermal insulation was another issue. Concerning was a significant change in the thermal conductivity of wood fiber insulation, where the current value almost doubled in one case compared to the design value determined by the producer.