This document outlines the basis of design for the performance-based design and nonlinear response history analysis of the Framework Project in Portland, OR. Performance-based design is pursued for this project because the proposed lateral force-resisting system, consisting of post-tensioned rocking cross-laminated timber (CLT) walls is not included in ASCE/SEI 7-10 Table 12.2-1.
Advanced sustainable lateral load resisting systems that combine ductile and recyclable materials offer a viable solution to resist seismic load effects in environmentally responsible ways. This paper presents the seismic response of a post-tensioned timber-steel hybrid braced frame. This hybrid system combines glulam frame with steel braces to improve lateral stiffness while providing self-centreing capability under seismic loads. The proposed system is first presented. A detailed numerical model of the proposed system is then developed with emphasis on the connections and inelastic response of bracing members. Various types of braced frames including diagonal, cross and chevron configurations are numerically examined to assess the viability of the proposed concept and to confirm the efficiency of the system. A summary of initial findings is presented to demonstrate usefulness of the hybrid system. The results demonstrate that the proposed system increases overall lateral stiffness and ductility while still being able to achieve self-centring. Some additional information on connection details are provided for implementation in practical structures. The braced-frame solution is expected to widen options for lateral load resisting systems for mid-to-high-rise buildings.
New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference
April 13-15, 2012, Christchurch, New Zealand
Driven by sustainability, locally available resources and expertise, and economy, the design of the Carterton Events Centre focused on timber for the majority of the main structural and non-structural components. Combined with a client desire for minimization of earthquake damage, dissipative post-tensioned rocking...
Sustainability and innovation are key components in the fight against climate change. Mass timber buildings have been gaining popularity due to the renewable nature of timber. Although research comparing mass timber buildings to more mainstream buildings such as steel is still in the early stages and therefore, limited. We are looking to determine the difference between carbon footprints of mass timber and traditional steel and concrete buildings. This is done with the intention of determining the sustainability and practicality of mass timber buildings.
The building sector is increasingly identified as being energy and carbon intensive. Although the majority of emissions are linked to energy usage during the operation part of a building's life cycle, choice of construction materials could play a significant role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental end-point damages. Increasing the use of wood products in buildings may contribute to the solution, but their environmental impacts are difficult to assess and quantify because they depend on a variety of uncertain parameters. The present cradle-to-gate life-cycle analysis (LCA) focuses exclusively on a glued-laminated wood product (glulam) produced from North American boreal forests located in the province of Quebec, Canada. This study uses primary data to quantify the environmental impacts of all necessary stages of products' life cycle, from harvesting the primary resources, to manufacturing the transformed product into glulam. The functional unit is 1 m3 of glulam. This is the first study based on primary data pertaining to Quebec's boreal forest. Quebec's boreal glulam manufacturing was compared with two other LCAs on glulam in Europe and the United States. Our results show that Quebec's glulam has a significantly smaller environmental footprint than what is reported in the literature. From an LCA perspective, there is a significant advantage to producing glulam in Quebec, compared with the European and American contexts. The same holds true in regard to the four end-point damage categories.
Master the practice of designing structures with cross-laminated timber
This comprehensive guide explains the design standards, code provisions, and safety requirements engineers need to know to use cross-laminated timber as a structural building material. The book covers all applicable design considerations, including the relevant structural load requirements and fire safety requirements.
Written by a collection of experts in the field, Cross-Laminated Timber Design: Structural Properties, Standards, and Safety introduces the material properties of CLT and goes on to cover the recommended lateral and vertical design standards. Design examples and case studies are featured throughout. You will get design recommendations for connections, building envelopes, acoustics for CLT projects, and much more. Sustainability and environmental issues are discussed in full detail.
Covers the latest methods and design techniques being used for CLT
Explains the code provisions in the NDS, ASCE 7, and IBC that apply to CLT
Include contributions from some of the leading experts in the field