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Advanced Timber Construction Industry: A Review of 350 Multi-Storey Timber Projects from 2000–2021

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3006
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Svatoš-Ražnjevic, Hana
Orozco, Luis
Menges, Achim
Organization
University of Stuttgart
Editor
Brandner, Reinhard
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Multi-storey Timber Construction
Timber Buildings
Mass Timber Construction
Survey
Typologies
Trends and Perspectives
Timber Morphologies
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
Throughout the last two decades the timber building sector has experienced a steady growth in multi-storey construction. Although there has been a growing number of research focused on trends, benefits, and disadvantages in timber construction from various technical perspectives, so far there is no extensive literature on the trajectory of emerging architectural typologies. This paper presents an examination of architectural variety and spatial possibilities in current serial and modular multi-storey timber construction. It aims to draw a parallel between architectural characteristics and their relation to structural systems in timber. The research draws from a collection of 350 contemporary multi-storey timber building projects between 2000 and 2021. It consists of 300 built projects, 12 projects currently in construction, and 38 design proposals. The survey consists of quantitative and qualitative project data, as well as classification of the structural system, material, program, massing, and spatial organization of the projects. It then compares the different structural and design aspects to achieve a comprehensive overview of possibilities in timber construction. The outcome is an identification of the range of morphologies and a better understanding of the design space in current serial and modular multi-storey mass timber construction.
Online Access
Free
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Identifying the Economic Barriers to CLT Cost Estimation Among Building Construction Professionals

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2345
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Stutesman, Jonathan H.
Organization
Virginia Tech
Year of Publication
2019
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Cost
Keywords
Cost Estimation
Survey
Commercial
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Cross-laminated timbers (CLTs) are strong and lightweight structural building materials. CLTs are made from renewable wood resources and have significant economic potential as a new value-added product for the United States. However, market penetration has been obstructed by product affordability and lack of availability for use. Previous studies and projects have surveyed opinions of designers and contractors about the adoption of CLTs. No previous study was found that surveyed cost estimators, who serve the essential function of creating economic comparisons of alternative materials in commercial construction. CLTs are not included in these current cost estimation tools and software packages which may be limiting the potential use of CLT in construction. The purpose of this study was to discover if cost estimation is being used to make structural decisions potentially affecting the marketability of CLT use in construction and building design because of the ability to estimate CLTs adequately. Through the use of a survey, the re-designing of a building, and discussions with subject matter experts, this study examined the knowledge level of cross-laminated timbers of under-surveyed building construction professions and the relationship between cost estimation and structural material choices. Their responses are demonstrating the need for better cost estimation tools for cross-laminated timbers such as inclusion in the Construction Specifications Institute's classification systems in order for CLTs to become a more competitive product. The study concluded that cost estimation is important for CLT market development, because it is being used extensively in the construction industry.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Structural Timber Design in Curricula of Canadian Universities: Current Status and Future Needs

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2879
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
General Information
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Daneshvar, Hossein
Goni, Tahiat
Zhang, Sigong
Kelterborn, Reed
Chui, Ying Hei
Organization
University of Alberta
University of Exeter
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
General Information
Keywords
Education
Timber Engineering
Sustainability
Survey
Decision Matrix
Research Status
Complete
Series
Education Sciences
Summary
Due to the efficiency, sustainability, and advances in firefighting technologies, the allowable height for wood buildings was increased from 4 to 6 storeys in 2015 and will be further increased to 12 storeys in the 2020 edition of the National Building Code of Canada, as a result of the advent and application of mass timber products. To match the development in the industry and the increasing need in the market for highly skilled timber engineers, structural timber design curricula at the university level must evolve to train the next generation of practitioners. At most Canadian universities, structural timber design courses are mainly provided in civil engineering departments. In this study, 31 accredited civil engineering programs in Canada were reviewed for structural wood design content at undergraduate and graduate levels based on two surveys conducted in 2018 and 2020. In the 2018 survey, the percentage of structural timber design content was estimated and compared with other engineering materials (e.g., steel, concrete, and masonry), and a similar survey was repeated in 2020 to determine if any significant changes had occurred. In early 2021, two complementary questionnaires were sent to the instructors of timber-related courses across the country to collect quantitative information, including enrollment statistics, percentage dedicated to timber design in combined material courses, and potential topics deemed critical to support the design of modern timber structures. Based on the responses provided, and also on the availability of resources and the research ongoing, the content for five advanced-level courses is proposed to address the needs of the timber design community. The findings presented in this paper will assist the timber industry, government agencies, and educational institutions in effecting potential changes to university curricula to educate the next generation of timber design professionals who will possess the necessary skills and knowledge to meet the challenges in designing modern mass timber structures.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Summary Report: Survey of International Tall Wood Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1870
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Market and Adoption
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Timber-Concrete Composite
Other Materials
Application
Wood Building Systems
Organization
Forestry Innovation Investment
Binational Softwood Lumber Council
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Timber-Concrete Composite
Other Materials
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Market and Adoption
Design and Systems
Keywords
Tall Wood
Mass Timber
Lessons Learned
Built Projects
Survey
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Over the past several years, a number of tall wood projects have been completed around the world, demonstrating successful applications of mass timber technologies. A survey of ten tall wood building projects in several countries was undertaken to present some common lessons learned from the experiences of four key stakeholder groups involved in the projects. The survey was focused on the experiences of each project’s Developer/Owner, Design Team, Authorities Having Jurisdiction (AHJ), and Construction Team. It also examined the topics of project insurance, project financing and building operations and performance.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Understanding Costs and Identifying Value in Mass Timber Construction: Calculating the ‘Total Cost of Project’ (TCP)

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1897
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Kremer, Paul
Ritchie, Laurence
Publisher
Mass Timber Construction Journal
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Cost
Keywords
Cost Versus Value
Quantity Survey
Productivity
Research Status
Complete
Series
Mass Timber Construction Journal
Summary
With any new technology introduced to market there is often an education process for industry stakeholders to understand the benefits. The present paper sought to explain the difference between ‘costs’ and ‘value’ in Mass Timber Construction (MTC). Specifically, the paper focuses on what has been termed the Total Cost of Project (TCP), in which the value (benefits) of using MTC technologies — such as Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) and Glue Laminated (GluLam) beams and columns — is quantified and offset against material costs in a pure cost-versus-cost calculation commonly used in traditional construction estimation/quotation. The quantification of ‘value’, as defined by various stakeholders along the supply chain, is seen as an opportunity to demonstrate the holistic advantage of MTC. The present paper provides a worked example looking at the cost and value of using MTC for the builder, as stakeholder, TCP of a mid-rise apartment complex in Australia. The analysis identifies a productivity gain, resulting in a 30% reduction in duration on site, ultimately resulting in reduced risk exposure and time related costs compared with traditional concrete construction.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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