This study aimed to present a solution in glued laminated timber to replace frame structures built in reinforced concrete and metallic structure, which are common in agricultural buildings in western Paraná such as those destined to laying poultry house building by agricultural cooperatives. Structural behavior of frames build from Araucaria angustifolia glued boards and vegetable oil-based polyurethane adhesive was evaluated. Tests were carried out to characterize wood and adhesive to obtain verification/sizing parameters. Initially, a full-scale structural project was conducted to meet standard laying poultry house specifications. Afterwards, five units of straight three-articulated frames on a 1:2.5 reduced scale were designed, built, and subjected to strength tests until breaking. They were built with a 2-meter free span and a 15° slope, suitable for using metal roof tiles. The average for structure ultimate strength was 4.14 times the design load. Structures had satisfactory mechanical performance and displacements lower than those recommended by NBR 7190 (1997) standard (ABNT). Therefore, building glued frames with Parana pine boards and vegetable oil-based glue is technically feasible.
Dovetail connections were applied for connecting column to column, and beam to beam in traditional timber framed buildings. Previous studies were mainly focused on mechanical behaviour of the connection. However, there was a lack of study on the structural behaviour of the connection under different moisture contents. The goal of this study was to analyse the effects of moisture content on swelling behaviour and structural performance of dovetail connection. Different sizes of 120×120, 180×180, 180×240 mm from larix kaempferi and pinus koraiensis were used. Dimensional changes of dovetail connection made from different species showed different trends with an increment of size. The dimensional changes of member of dovetail connection from larix kaempferi were higher than those of dovetail connection made from pinus koraiensis, whereas the dimensional changes of geometric variables of dovetail connection from pinus koraiensis were higher than those of dovetail connection made from larix kaempferi.
The wood engineering community has dedicated a significant amount of effort over the last decades to establish a reliable predictive model for the load-carrying capacity of timber connections under wood failure mechanisms. Test results from various sources (Foschi and Longworth 1975; Johnsson 2003; Quenneville and Mohammad 2000; Stahl et al. 2004; Zarnani and Quenneville 2012a) demonstrate that for multi-fastener connections, failure of wood can be the dominant mode.
In existing wood strength prediction models for parallel to grain failure in timber connections using dowel-type fasteners, different methods consider the minimum, maximum or the summation of the tensile and shear capacities of the failed wood block planes. This results in disagreements between the experimental values and the predictions. It is postulated that these methods are not appropriate since the stiffness in the wood blocks adjacent to the tensile and shear planes differs and this leads to uneven load distribution amongst the resisting planes (Johnsson 2004; Zarnani and Quenneville 2012a).
The present study focuses on the nailed connections. A closed-form analytical method to determine the load-carrying capacity of wood under parallel-to-grain loading in small dowel-type connections in timber products is thus proposed. The proposed stiffness-based model has already been verified in brittle and mixed failure modes of timber rivet connections (Zarnani and Quenneville 2013b).
Wood has long been in demand as a competent building material due to its beauty, economy, and ease of construction. Excellent material properties are exhibited by a number of new engineered wood products such as gluedlaminated (Glulam) and cross-laminated timbers (CLT). New experimental data on the structural behaviour of CLT-toGlulam composite-section beams is presented in this paper. Four large-scale test assemblies composed of two different engineered wood sections were tested. Beam composite sections were built of a top flange part made of a cross-laminated timber slab and a web part made of a Glulam rectangular section. The two parts forming each beam section were connected together using 5/16 self-tapping screws in order to create composite action. Results from this research showed that reducing the spacing distance between screws considerably increased the flexural stiffness of the CLT-to-Glulam composite beams.
There is a need to demonstrate how novel timber-concrete composite floors can span long distances and be a practical alternative to other traditional structural systems. Better understanding of the fire behaviour of these hybrid systems is essential. To achieve this, the fire-resistance of a timber-concrete composite floor assembly, using BC wood products, will be evaluated in accordance with CAN/ULC-S101 . A 2 hr fire resistance rating will be targeted, as this is the current requirement in high-rise buildings for floor separations between occupancies.
The structural behaviour of this type of system will also be assessed from conducting pull-out tests of the shear connectors.
In conjunction with previous test data, the results of this test will be used to develop an analytical model to assess the structural and fire-resistance of timber-concrete composite floors.
This paper presents the analysis of the structural and thermal behaviour of an timber-concrete prefabricated composite wall system, the Concrete Glulam Framed Panel (CGFP) which is a panel made of a concrete slab and a structural glulam frame. The research analyses the structural performance with quasi-static in-plane tests, focused on the in-plane strength and stiffness of individual panels, and the thermal behaviour of the system with steady state tests using an hot box apparatus. The results validate the efficacy of proposed system ensuring the resistance and the dissipative structural behaviour through the hierarchy response characterized by the wood frame, the braced reinforced concrete panel of the singular module and by the rocking effects of global system.
Due to the increasing environmental awareness, the transition pace to renewable materials has increased, and the use of timber in construction is no exception. However, using timber in high rise building applications comes with structural challenges, e.g dynamic issues originating from timber being lightweight compared to conventional building materials. Some of the structural challenges with timber can be resolved by the implementation of Timber Concrete Composites (TCC), which increases the effective bending stiffness by adding a concrete layer connected to the underlying timber floor. Furthermore, the higher self-weight of concrete contributes to improved dynamic performance.
Despite the fact that the TCC floor is a versatile and quite common structural design solution in Europe, the TCC knowledge in the Swedish construction industry is limited. The main scope of the thesis is to raise this knowledge of TCC by studying the structural behavior and develop applicable design methods. Both analytical design methods and FE-modelling are addressed. The content is limited to TCC floors with a 5-layer Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) section, with use of notches or screws as shear connectors.
In CLT design, the Gamma method is commonly used and applicable to a CLT layup up to 5 layers. This method can, by a slight modification, be applicable for TCC sections with a 5-layer CLT as well. The concrete layer on top is regarded as an additional longitudinal layer, flexibly connected to the CLT section. The Equivalent gamma method and the Extended gamma method are two modified versions of the conventional Gamma method, valid for TCC floors with 5-layer CLT sections. Each method determines the effective bending stiffness accurately, compared to FE-modelling and laboratory test results. The Extended gamma method has a more solid theoretical base compared to the Equivalent gamma method, and is considered the recommended design method. The simplified methodology of the Equivalent gamma method is theoretically questionable, hence its recommended use is for preliminary calculations only.
The following concluding remarks can be drawn from the analysis of the structural behavior of TCC floors:
- The shear connectors should be concentrated to areas of high shear flow, i.e. close to support, for optimal structural performance.
- An increased ratio of timber in the longitudinal, load-bearing direction of the CLT section increases the effective bending stiffness of the TCC.
- The concrete layer increases the effective bending stiffness due to the high Young's modulus. However, the high density of concrete entails a thin concrete layer thickness to achieve a light-weight and structural efficient TCC system, and the decisive optimisation factor is the ratio of mass-to-effective bending stiffness, m/EI.