Although engineered wood products such as glued laminated timber (glulam) and cross-laminated timber (CLT) have successfully eliminated the flaws inherently exist in conventional wood products, they are still not comparable with steel and concrete in terms of strength and stiffness. Among all different options for reinforcement, Carbon Fibre is relatively popular due to its high tensile strength, low weight, and easy installation. This study presents an analysis of flexural stiffness and stress distributions of CLT panels reinforced with carbon fibre mats, based on an analytical method and finite element method (FEM).
In this study, the duration-of-load (DOL) effect on the rolling shear strength of cross laminated timber (CLT) was evaluated. A stress-based damage accumulation model is chosen to evaluate the DOL effect on the rolling shear strength of CLT. This model incorporates the established short-term rolling shear strength of material and predicts the time to failure under arbitrary loading history. The model was calibrated and verified based on the test data from low cycle trapezoidal fatigue tests (the damage accumulation tests). The long-term rolling shear behaviour of CLT can then be evaluated from this verified model. As the developed damage accumulation model is a probabilistic model, it can be incorporated into a time-reliability study. Therefore, a reliability assessment of the CLT products was performed considering short-term and snow loading cases. The reliability analysis results and factors reflecting the DOL effect on the rolling shear strength of CLT are compared and discussed. The results suggest that the DOL rolling shear strength adjustment factor for CLT is more severe than the general DOL adjustment factor for lumber; and, this difference should be considered in the introduction of CLT into the building codes for engineered wood design.
This paper provides a systematic review of research on glued laminated timber beams with circular and rectangular openings. Experiments on girders with unreinforced openings varied several parameters, including the girder span and shape, opening position and shape, and the relationship between the stress state near the opening and the ratio of opening size to girder size. We compare experimental results with recommendations given by DIN 1052:2004-08, DIN EN 1995-1-1/NA: 2010, prEN 1995-1-1: Final Draft, analytical expressions, and other relevant standards, as well as with the results of numerical models using the finite element method. Because of its myriad complexities and uncertainties, this area remains open for further research and for implementation of that research into practical design guidelines and rules.
Feasibility of using rapid grown Japanese cedar glulam for constructing a portal frame was examined. A 2500x3000-mm portal frame was constructed with 140x305-mm glulam members and subjected to a lateral cyclic load. The connections between post and beam members were fastened with 8 16-mm pins. Resulted moment resistance of the frame fastened with pins in square placement performed better than that with in circular placement. While the inserted metal plate in L-type showed higher initial stiffness and energy absorption than that in straight metal plate. The stress distribution of glulam post indicated shifts of neutral axis and deflection point as the cyclic load increases.