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Connections for Stackable Heavy Timber Modules in Midrise to Tall Wood Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2087
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Connections
Design and Systems
Seismic
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Zhang, Chao
Lee, George
Lam, Frank
Organization
University of British Columbia
Year of Publication
2019
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Connections
Design and Systems
Seismic
Keywords
Modular
Intra-module Connection
Inter-module Vertical Connection
Inter-module horizontal Connection
Mid-Rise
Tall Wood
Screws
Load Transfer
Steel Angle Bracket
Stiffness
Strength
Ductility
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
In Phase I (2018-19) of this project on Prefabricated Heavy Timber Modular Construction, three major types of connections used in a stackable modular building were studied: intramodule connection, inter-module vertical connection, and inter-module horizontal connection. The load requirement and major design criteria were identified...
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Development of Mass Timber Wall System Based on Nail Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2526
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Author
Zhang, Chao
Lee, George
Lam, Frank
Organization
Timber Engineering and Applied Mechanics (TEAM) Laboratory
Year of Publication
2020
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Shear
Stiffness
Fasteners
Fastener Type
Load
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This project studied the feasibility and performance of a mass timber wall system based on Nail Laminated Timber (NLT) for floor/wall applications, in order to quantify the effects of various design parameters. Thirteen 2.4 m × 2.4 m shear walls were manufactured and tested in this phase. Together with another five specimens tested before, a total eighteen shear wall specimens and ten configurations were investigated. The design variables included fastener type, sheathing thickness, number of sheathings, sheathing material, nailing pattern, wall opening, and lumber orientation. The NLT walls were made of SprucePine-Fir (SPF) No. 2 2×4 (38 mm × 89 mm) lumber and Oriented Strand Lumber (OSB) or plywood sheathing. They were tested under monotonic and reverse-cyclic loading protocols, in accordance with ASTM E564-06 (2018) and ASTM E2126-19, respectively. Compared to traditional wood stud walls, the best performing NLT based shear wall had 2.5 times the peak load and 2 times the stiffness at 0.5-1.5% drift, while retaining high ductility. The advantage of these NLT-based wall was even greater under reverse-cyclic loading due to the internal energy dissipation of NLT. The wall with ring nails had higher stiffness than the one with smooth nails. But the performance of ring nails deteriorated drastically under reverse-cyclic loading, leading to a considerably lower capacity. Changing the sheathing thickness from 11 mm to 15 mm improved the strength by 6% while having the same initial stiffness. Adding one more face of sheathing increased the peak load and stiffness by at least 50%. The wall was also very ductile as the load dropped less than 10% when the lateral displacement exceeded 150 mm. The difference created by sheathing material was not significant if they were of the same thickness. Reducing the nailing spacing by half led to a 40% increasing in the peak load and stiffness. Having an opening of 25% of the area at the center, the lateral capacity and stiffness reached 75% or more of the full wall. A simplified method to estimate the lateral resistance of this mass timber wall system was proposed. The estimate was close to the tested capacity and was on the conservative side. Recommendations for design and manufacturing the system were also presented.
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Duration-Of-Load Effect on the Rolling Shear Strength of Cross Laminated Timber: Duration-Of-Load Tests and Damage Accumulation Model

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue228
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Li, Yuan
Lam, Frank
Organization
University of British Columbia
Year of Publication
2015
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Duration of Load
Long-term
Mountain Pine Beetle
Rolling Shear Strength
Stiffness
Strength
Stress Distribution
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
In this study, the duration-of-load (DOL) effect on the rolling shear strength of cross laminated timber (CLT) was evaluated. A stress-based damage accumulation model is chosen to evaluate the DOL effect on the rolling shear strength of CLT. This model incorporates the established short-term rolling shear strength of material and predicts the time to failure under arbitrary loading history. The model was calibrated and verified based on the test data from low cycle trapezoidal fatigue tests (the damage accumulation tests). The long-term rolling shear behaviour of CLT can then be evaluated from this verified model. As the developed damage accumulation model is a probabilistic model, it can be incorporated into a time-reliability study. Therefore, a reliability assessment of the CLT products was performed considering short-term and snow loading cases. The reliability analysis results and factors reflecting the DOL effect on the rolling shear strength of CLT are compared and discussed. The results suggest that the DOL rolling shear strength adjustment factor for CLT is more severe than the general DOL adjustment factor for lumber; and, this difference should be considered in the introduction of CLT into the building codes for engineered wood design.
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Experimental Study on Lateral Resistance of Reinforced Glued-Laminated Timber Post and Beam Structures

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1648
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Seismic
Mechanical Properties
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Author
Xiong, Haibei
Liu, Yingyang
Lam, Frank
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Topic
Seismic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Cyclic Tests
Full Scale
Reinforcement
Lateral Resistance
Strength
Stiffness
Energy Dissipation
Self-Tapping Screws
FRP
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 3471-3478
Summary
In order to study the lateral resistance of reinforced glued-laminated timber post and beam structures, nine cyclic tests on full-scale one-storey, one-bay timber post and beam construction specimens were carried out. Two reinforcement methods (wrapping fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) and implanting self-tapping screws) and two...
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Numerical Simulation for the Seismic Behaviour of Mid-Rise CLT Shear Walls with Coupling Beams

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue200
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Wood Building Systems
Author
Liu, Jingjing
Lam, Frank
Year of Publication
2014
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Deflection
Degradation
Energy Dissipation
Force
Resistance
Stiffness
Strength
Numerical model
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 10-14, 2014, Quebec City, Canada
Summary
In this paper, an innovative type of mid-rise Cross Laminated Timber shear walls with coupling beams was designed. The 5-layer CLT panels were continuous along the height. Hold-downs and angle brackets were installed at the bottom of the panels. Coupling beams with energy dissipation devices were used to decrease the deformation and internal forces of the walls, providing adequate stiffness and strength. A numerical model was developed in OpenSees for a six storey prototype to investigate its seismic behaviour with different configurations. Strength degradation, stiffness degradation, and pinching effect were considered in the connection models. The structural performance was evaluated through a series of static and transient analyses. The simulation results indicated adequate lateral resistance and deformation capacity of this structural type. This study will lead to more application of large size CLT panels in multi-storey CLT buildings as lateral resistant systems.
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Study of Massive Timber Walls based on NLT and Post Laminated LVL

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1585
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Zhang, Chao
Lee, George
Lam, Frank
Organization
University of British Columbia
Year of Publication
2018
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Shear Tests
Glue Lines
Lateral Loading
Sheathing
Load Carrying Capacity
Stiffness
Energy Dissipation
Shear Strength
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Currently the massive timber shear walls are mainly made from Cross Laminated Timber (CLT), which possesses a high in-plane shear strength and rigidity. But only part of its elements (mainly the vertically aligned laminae) are engaged in carrying the vertical load and that could be a limitation when designing taller timber structures or wherever higher...
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6 records – page 1 of 1.