International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies
September 30-October 2 2015, Riga, Latvia
Cross laminated timber (CLT) is one of the structural building systems based on the lamination of multiple layers, where each layer is oriented perpendicularly to each other. Recent requirements are placed to develop an alternative process based on the mechanical lamination of the layers, which is of particular interest to our research group at the University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings. The goal is to develop and verify the behaviour of mechanically laminated CLT wall panels exposed to shear stresses in the plane. The shear resistance of mechanically jointed CLT is ensured by connecting the layers by screws. The paper deals with the experimental analysis focused on the determination of the torsional stiffness and the slip modulus of crossing areas for different numbers of orthogonally connected layers. The results of the experiments were compared with the current analytical model.
Society of Wood Science and Technology International Convention
The application of deconstructable connectors in timber-concrete composite (TCC) floors enables the possibility of disassembly and reuse of timber materials at the end of building’s life. This paper introduces the initial concept of a deconstructable TCC connector comprised of a self-tapping screw embedded in a plug made of rigid polyvinyl chloride and a level adjuster made of silicone rubber. This connection system is versatile and can be applied for prefabrication and in-situ concrete casting of TCC floors in both wet-dry and dry-dry systems. The paper presents the results of preliminary tests on the shear performance of four different configurations of the connector system in T-section glulam-concrete composites. The shear performance is compared to that of a permanent connector made with the same type of self-tapping screw. The failure modes observed are also analyzed to provide technical information for further optimization of the connector in the future.
Traditional wood-wood connections, widely used in the past, have been progressively replaced by steel fasteners and bonding processes in modern timber constructions. However, the emergence of digital fabrication and innovative engineered timber products have offered new design possibilities for wood-wood connections. The design-to-production workflow has evolved considerably over the last few decades, such that a large number of connections with various geometries can now be easily produced. These connections have become a cost-competitive alternative for the edgewise connection of thin timber panels. Several challenges remain in order to broaden the use of this specific joining technique into common timber construction practice: (1) prove the applicability at the building scale, (2) propose a standardized construction system, (3) develop a convenient calculation model for practice, and (4) investigate the mechanical behavior of wood-wood connections. The first building implementation of digitally produced through-tenon connections for a folded-plate structure is presented in this work. Specific computational tools for the design and manufacture of more than 300 different plates were efficiently applied in a multi-stakeholder project environment. Cross-laminated timber panels were investigated for the first time, and the potential of such connections was demonstrated for different engineered timber products. Moreover, this work demonstrated the feasibility of this construction system at the building scale. For a more resilient and locally distributed construction process, a standardized system using through-tenon connections and commonly available small panels was developed to reconstitute basic housing components. Based on a case-study with industry partners, the fabrication and assembly processes were validated with prototypes made of oriented strand board. Their structural performance was investigated by means of a numerical model and a comparison with glued and nailed assemblies. The results showed that through-tenon connections are a viable alternative to commonly used mechanical fasteners. So far, the structural analysis of such construction systems has been mainly achieved with complex finite element models, not in line with the simplicity of basic housing elements. A convenient calculation model for practice, which can capture the semi-rigid behavior of the connections and predict the effective bending stiffness, was thus introduced and subjected to large-scale bending tests. The proposed model was in good agreement with the experimental results, highlighting the importance of the connection behavior. The in-plane behavior of through-tenon connections for several timber panel materials was characterized through an experimental campaign to determine the load-carrying capacity and slip modulus required for calculation models. Based on the test results, existing guidelines were evaluated to safely apply these connections in structural elements while a finite element model was developed to approximate their performance. This work constitutes a firm basis for the optimization of design guidelines and the creation of an extensive database on digitally produced wood-wood connections. Finally, this thesis provides a convenient design framework for the newly developed standardized timber construction system and a solid foundation for research into digitally produced wood-wood connections.
For the design of timber-concrete composite (TCC) elements with notches, the slip modulus Kser represents an important property of the connection. In this paper available research results were gathered and further experimental tests were carried out in order to define the slip modulus of a notched connection. Therefore experimental push-out and beam tests have been conducted on timber-concrete composite specimens. Test series included specimens with and without screws in the notches. Also the failure mode of the connection as well as the application of the slipmodulus (obtained from the push-out tests) in TCC elements have been investigated.
A new shear connection system was tested in order to be used in off-site manufactured cassette floor elements made with glulam beams and Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) panels. The shear connection proposed is made with double-sided punched metal plate fasteners, connecting CLT and glulam members to form a T-cross-section. Due to the lack of withdrawal capacity of punched metal plate fasteners, the shear connection must be secured with screws to resist separations forces which may occur between the members in the floor element.
Shear tests were performed on glulam-CLT joints made with double-sided punched metal plate fasteners and with inclined self-tapping screws as reference cases to compare to joints with both fastener types combined. Each fastener type is characterised by a specific load-slip curve and different values for the yield slip, slip at maximum load and failure slip. These parameters can be used to evaluate the compatibility of the different fasteners and their combined effect in a joint. The test results show that there is a significant contribution from both the double-sided punched metal plate and inclined screw fasteners to the strength and stiffness of the combined joints.
Due to the fact that the individual fasteners reach their maximum load for different slip values, the load-carrying capacity of joints with combined fasteners is somewhat lower than the sum of the individual fasteners load-carrying capacities. The slip modulus of the combined fasteners may be estimated as the sum of the respective slip modulus of each fastener due to the compatible behaviour of the fasteners in the serviceability limit state.
The use of lightweight concrete in timber-concrete composite structures for the purposes of reconstruction, upgrading, and strengthening has increasing application potential. The correct combination of mechanical properties of both materials can preserve the beneficial aspects of timber in tension and concrete in compression, while reducing the weight of the structure. This paper experimentally evaluated the slip modulus of screw connectors as one of the key issues in the structural design of these types of composite structures. The results of four groups of push-out tests, which were performed on composite samples, are presented. All of the samples had identical cross sections, but each group was made with a different lightweight concrete density class according to Eurocode 2. The obtained results were compared with the values recommended by Eurocode 5. The analysis showed that the code recommendations yielded slip modulus values that were considerably higher than the ones obtained experimentally, which could lead to unsafe timber and lightweight concrete structures.
April 14-16, 2011, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States
Wood-concrete composite systems are well established, structurally efficient building systems for both new construction and rehabilitation of old timber structures. Composite action is achieved through a mechanical device to integrally connect in shear the two material components, wood and concrete. Depending on the device, different levels of composite action and thus efficiency are achieved. The purpose of this study was to investigate the structural feasibility and effectiveness of using truss plates, typically used in the making of metal-plate-connected wood trusses, as shear connectors for laminated veneer lumber (LVL)-concrete composite systems. The experimental program consisted of two studies. The first study established slip-modulus and ultimate shear capacity of the truss plates when used in an LVL-concrete push out assembly. The second study evaluated overall composite bending stiffness and strength in two full size T-beams when subjected to four-point bending. One beam employed two continuous rows of truss plates and the other employed one row. It was found that the initial stiffness of both T-beams was similar for one and two rows of truss plates but that the ultimate capacity was approximately 20% less with the use of only one row.