In wood-frame buildings of three or more stories, cumulative shrinkage can be significant and have an impact on the function and performance of finishes, openings, mechanical/electrical/plumbing (MEP) systems, and structural connections. However, as more designers look to wood-frame construction to improve the cost and sustainability of their mid-rise projects, many have learned that accommodating wood shrinkage is actually very straightforward. This publication will describe procedures for estimating wood shrinkage and provide detailing options that minimize its effects on building performance.
Characteristics of the Radio-Frequency/Vacuum Drying of Heavy Timbers for Post and Beam of Korean Style Housings Part II: For Korean Red Pine Heavy Timbers with 250 × 250 mm, 300 × 300 mm in Cross Section and 300 mm in Diameter, and 3,600 mm in Length
This study examined the characteristics of radio-frequency/vacuum dried Korean red pine (Pinus densoflora heavy timbers with 250 × 250 mm (S), 300 × 300 mm (L) in cross section and 300 mm in diameter, and 3,600 mm in length, which were subjected to compressive loading after a kerf pretreatment. The following results were obtained : The drying time was short and the drying rate was high in spite of the large cross section of specimens. The moisture gradient inall specimens was gentle in both longitudinal and transverse directions owing to dielectric heating. The shrinkage of the width in the direction perpendicular to was 21 percent ~ 76 percent of that of the thickness of square timbers in the direction parallel to the mechanical pressure. The casehardening for all specimens was very slight because of significantly reduced ratio of the tangential to radial shrinkage of specimens and kerfing. The surface checks somewhat severely occurred although the occurrence extent of the surface checks on the kerfed specimens was slight compared withthat on the control specimen.
The objective of this research is to develop optimum notch profile to achieve maximum connection stiffness and strength properties, characterize notched timber connection MTP-concrete floor systems, including concrete shrinkage and develop floor system details and design procedure.
The pre-air-drying of Korean pine before the high-temperature and low-humidity drying was shown to be effective in uniform moisture content distribution and prevention of surface check. Our results suggest that initial moisture content of the timber also plays important role in high-temperature and low-humidity drying method. The pre-air-drying also helps in the reduction of surface checks in Korean pine when compared to the Korean pine dried by only high-temperature and low-humidity. End-coating was not effective in the prevention of twist, shrinkage, case hardening and internal checks. The pre-air-drying reduces the internal tension stresses which occur during high-temperature and low-humidity drying thus decreasing case hardening and also preventing internal checks. The pre-air-drying decreases the moisture content and causes shrinkage which leads to increased twist in the Korean pine.
Two of the major topics of interest to those designing taller and larger wood buildings are the susceptibility to differential movement and the likelihood of mass timber components drying slowly after they are wetted during construction. The Wood Innovation and Design Centre in Prince George, British Columbia provides a unique opportunity for non-destructive testing and monitoring to measure the ‘As Built’ performance of a relatively tall mass timber building. Field measurements also provide performance data to support regulatory and market acceptance of wood-based systems in tall and large buildings.
This report first describes instrumentation to measure the vertical movement of selected glulam columns and cross-laminated timber (CLT) walls in this building. Three locations of glulam columns and one CLT wall of the core structure were selected for measuring vertical movement along with the environmental conditions (temperature and humidity) in the immediate vicinity. The report then describes instrumentation to measure the moisture changes in the wood roof structure. Six locations in the roof were selected and instrumented for measuring moisture changes in the wood as well as the local environmental conditions.
Wood is a hygro-mechanical, non-isotropic and inhomogeneous material concerning both modulus of elasticity (MOE) and shrinkage properties. In stress calculations associated with ordinary timber design, these matters are often not dealt with properly. The main reason for this is that stress distributions in inhomogeneous glued laminated members (glulams) and in composite beams exposed to combined mechanical action and variable climate conditions are extremely difficult to predict by hand. Several experimental studies of Norway spruce have shown that the longitudinal modulus of elasticity and the longitudinal shrinkage coefficient vary considerably from pith to bark.
The question is how much these variations affect the stress distribution in wooden structures exposed to variable moisture climate. The paper presents a finite element implementation of a beam element with the aim of studying how wooden composites behave during both mechanical and environmental load action. The beam element is exposed to both axial and lateral deformation. The material model employed concerns the elastic, shrinkage, mechano-sorption and visco-elastic behaviour of the wood material. It is used here to simulate the behaviour of several simplysupported and continuous composite beams subjected to both mechanical and environmental loading to illustrate the advantages this can provide. The results indicate clearly both the inhomogeneity of the material and the variable moisture action occurring to have had a significant effect on the stress distribution within the cross-section of the products that were studied.