Knots are usually regarded as defects when grading lumber. In order to evaluate a member under out-of-plane loading, shear strength is one of the major mechanical properties, specifically, rolling shear (RS) strength is one of the critical mechanical properties of Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT), which determines the flexural strength of CLT under short-span bending loads. Lower grade lumber with a higher percentage of knots is recommended to be utilized for the cross-layer laminations which are mainly responsible for resisting shear stresses. Firstly, shear tests were performed in order to evaluate the effect of knots on longitudinal shear strength using shear blocks. After that, the effect of knots on the RS strength of 3-ply southern yellow pine CLT were investigated by experimental tests and an analytical model. Center-point bending tests with a span-to-depth ratio of 6 and two-plate shear tests with a loading angle of 14° were conducted on six CLT configurations composed of different types of cross layer laminations: clear flatsawn lumber with/without pith, lumber with sound knots with/without pith, and lumber with decayed knots with/without pith. The shear analogy method was implemented to evaluate the RS strength values from the bending test results, which were also compared against the results from the two-plate shear tests. It was found that: (1) The shear blocks containing sound knots had higher shear strength than matched clear shear blocks, the shear blocks containing unsound knots had lower shear strength than the matched clear shear blocks. (2) CLT specimens with cross-layer laminations with either sound knots or decayed knots had higher RS strength. (3) In general, the shear analogy method underestimated the RS strength of CLT specimens containing knots and pith.
Innovative mass timber panels, known as composite laminated panels (CLP), have been developed using lumber and laminated strand lumber (LSL) laminates. In this study, strain distributions of various 5-layer CLP and cross-laminated timber (CLT) were investigated by experimental and two modelling methods. Seven (7) different panel types were tested in third-point bending and short-span shear tests. During the tests, the digital imaging correlation (DIC) technique was used to measure the normal and shear strain in areas of interest. Evaluated component properties were used to determine strain distributions based on the shear analogy method and finite element (FE) modelling. The calculated theoretical strain distributions were compared with the DIC test results to evaluate the validity of strain distributions predicted by the analytical model (shear analogy) and numerical model (FE analysis). In addition, the influence of the test setup on the shear strain distribution was investigated. Results showed that the DIC strain distributions agreed well with the ones calculated by the shear analogy method and FE analysis. Both theoretical methods agree well with the test results in terms of strain distribution shape and magnitude. While the shear analogy method shows limitations when it comes to local strain close to the supports or gaps, the FE analysis reflects these strain shifts well. The findings support that the shear analogy is generally applicable for the stress and strain determination of CLP and CLT for structural design, while an FE analysis can be beneficial when it comes to the evaluation of localized stresses and strains. Due to the influence of compression at a support, the shear strain distribution near the support location is not symmetric. This is confirmed by the FE method.
A study was conducted with the primary objective of examining the efficacy of a standard block shear test method to assess the bond quality of cross-laminated timber (CLT) products. The secondary objective was to examine the effect of pressure and adhesive type on the block shear properties of CLT panels. The wood material used for the CLT samples was Select grade nominal 25 x 152-mm (1 x 6-inch) Hem-Fir. Three adhesive types were evaluated under two test conditions: dry and vacuum-pressure-dry (VPD), the latter as described in CSA standard O112.10. Shear strength and wood failure were evaluated for each test condition.
Among the four properties evaluated (dry and VPD shear strength, and dry and VPD wood failure), only the VPD wood failure showed consistency in assessing the bond quality of the CLT panels in terms of the factors (pressure and adhesive type) evaluated. Adhesive type had a strong effect on VPD wood failure. The different performance levels of the three adhesives were useful in providing insights into how the VPD block shear wood failure test responds to significant changes in CLT manufacturing parameters. The pressure used in fabricating the CLT panels showed a strong effect on VPD wood failure as demonstrated for one of the adhesives. VPD wood failure decreased with decreasing pressure. Although dry shear wood failure was able to detect the effect of pressure, it failed to detect the effect of adhesive type on the bond quality of the CLT panels.
These results provide support as to the effectiveness of the VPD block shear wood failure test in assessing the bond quality of CLT panels. The VPD conditioning treatment was able to identify poor bondline manufacturing conditions by observed changes in the mode of failure, which is also considered an indication of wood-adhesive bond durability. These results corroborate those obtained from the delamination test conducted in a previous study (Casilla et al. 2011).
Along with the delamination test proposed in an earlier report, the VPD block shear wood failure can be used to assess the CLT bond quality. Although promising, more testing is needed to assess whether the VPD block shear wood failure can be used in lieu of the delamination test. The other properties studied (shear strength and dry wood failure), however, were not found to be useful in consistently assessing bond line manufacturing quality.
The effectiveness of new shear test methods for evaluating the face-bonding quality of Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) panels was examined by comparing experimental data and numerical modelling. The common characteristic of the specimens was the loading with angle of 45 with respect to the wood grain, in order to avoid rolling shear during test. In addition, the sampling methodology along the panel was investigated, as well as the relation between shear and delamination tests, and the possibility of coupling them using the same specimen. The results demonstrated that all the proposed shear test methods were effective for evaluating the quality of bonding among layers in CLT panels; however, the practical applicability of the methods led to elect the most suitable for inclusion in technical standards. Shear and delamination results proved not to be correlated, and the results showed that the size of the specimen is a crucial factor in determining the outcomes of delamination tests. Therefore, while it is feasible to propose the coupling of accelerated aging procedures with shear tests, the size of the samples need to be higher than the one tested here.
The 11th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering
July 21-24, 2015, Victoria, BC, Canada
This paper presents recent progress in the development of seismic performance factors for cross-laminated timber (CLT) systems in the United States. A brief overview of some of other systematic studies conducted in Europe, North America, and Japan is also provided. The FEMA P695 methodology is briefly described and selected results from connector testing and CLT wall testing are discussed. Shear and uplift tests were performed on generic angle brackets to quantify their behavior. CLT walls with these connectors were then tested investigate the influence of various parameters on wall component performance. The influential factors considered include boundary condition, gravity loading, CLT grade, panel thickness, and panel aspect ratio (height:length). Results indicate that boundary condition and gravity loading have beneficial effect on strength and stiffness of the CLT panels. CLT grade is an important parameter while CLT panel thickness only has a minimal influence on wall behavior. Higher aspect ratio (4:1) panels demonstrated less stiffness but considerably more ductility than the panels with lower aspect ratio (2:1). This paper also provides details on some ongoing efforts including additional tests planned, index buildings from which P-695 archetypes will be extracted, and nonlinear modeling for this project.
The rolling shear modulus is very low, leading to rolling shear failure in the cross layer of cross-laminated timber (CLT). The overall objective of this thesis work was to develop an appropriate methodology for measuring the rolling shear properties of CL T. This research consists of three article format chapters, which were aimed at: 1) obtaining a better understanding of advantages and disadvantages of using the bending test and twoplate shear test for determining the rolling shear properties of 3-layer CLT, 2) investigating the influence of growth ring orientation and laminates thickness of cross layer on the rolling shear properties, and 3) verifying the feasibility of two-plate shear test method for measuring the rolling shear properties of 3-layer CL T beam. It is recommended that the two-plate shear test be used as a testing method for measuring the rolling shear modulus of a cross layer, which can be used to calculate the deflection of a 3-layer CLT beam using the shear analogy method at a given span-to-depth ratio ranging from 6 to 50. An adjustment factor (a) was proposed to predict the deflection under the centre-point bending test at various span-to-depth ratios. The two-plate shear test method can also be used to measure the rolling shear strength, and can provide a reasonable estimate of the load-carrying capacity of 3-layer CLT beam at a relatively large span-to-depth ratio, but a conservative estimate at a small span-to-depth ratio. In summary, it shall be feasible to adopt the two-plate shear test for determining the rolling shear modulus and strength of cross layer in CLT.
To learn the characteristics of a cross-laminated timber (CLT) panel, it is crucial to perform experimental tests. This study presents two experimental test methods to measure the in-plane shear modulus of CLT panels. This characteristic can be measured by multiple methods such as the picture frame test, the diagonal compression test, and the diaphragm shear test. In this study, the same CLT panels are tested and evaluated in the diaphragm shear test and the diagonal compression test to see if more reliable results can be achieved from the diaphragm shear test. This evaluation is done by experimental tests and finite element simulations. The theoretical pure shear simulation is used as a reference case. Finite element simulations are made for both edge glued and non-edge glued CLT panels. Nine CLT panels are tested in the diaphragm shear test and the diagonal compression test. During ideal conditions (uniform material properties and contact conditions), all three simulated methods result in an almost equal shear modulus. During the experimental testing, the diagonal compression test gives more coherent results with the expected shear modulus based on finite element simulations. Based on the diaphragm shear test results, the CLT panels behave like edge glued, but this situation is dismissed. However, during ideal conditions, the diaphragm shear test is seen as a more reliable method due to the higher proportion of shear in the measured area.
The mechanical behaviour of timber-to-timber connections with internal panels of densified veneer wood (DVW) and fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) dowels was experimentally assessed and a design method, based on EN 1995-1-1, was developed. Embedment tests on DVW plates and bending/shear tests on FRP dowels were performed to characterise these components, followed by full-scale tests of connections assembled with these materials. The results show that these connections exhibit a mechanical behaviour compatible with structural applications, regarding both load-carrying capacity and ductility. The proposed design model is based on EN 1995-1-1’s expressions for connections with dowel-type fasteners and gives good predictions of the experimental load-carrying capacities.
The design and application of cross laminated timber (CLT) is s trongly influenced by rolling shear properties of cross layers. Hence, predicting the mechanical behaviour of CLT requires accurate information about its rolling shear properties. In this study, black spruce wood laminates with three different growth ring orientations (flat sawn, in-between, quarter sawn) were edge glued to produce wooden cross layer (WCL). Two-plate shear tests were carried out on WCL to investigate the influence of growth ring orientation on the rolling shear properties. The experimental results showed that the growth ring orientation had a significant effect on rolling shear modulus of WCL, however, almost no effect on the rolling shear strength. The WCL of in-between end grain had the maximum rolling shear modulus of 89MPa and rolling sh ear strength of 2.13 MPa.
A concrete-filled steel tube (CFT) column system has many advantages compared with ordinary sttel or reinforced concrete system. One of the main advantages is the interaction between steel tube and concrete: occurrence of the local buckling of steel tube is delayed by the restraint of concrete, and the strength of concrete is increased by the confining effect provided from the steel tube. Extensive research work has been done in Japan over the last 15 years, including "New Urban Housing Project" and "US-Japan Cooperative Earthquake Research Program", in addition to the work done by individual universities and industries, which has been presented at the annual meeting of Architectural Institute of Japan (AIJ). This paper introduces the merits, design provisions and recent construction trends of CFT column systems in Japan, and discusses the results of trial designs of CFT theme structures which have been carried out to look for the advantages in the performance and construction cost compared with other constructional system.