Four kinds of glued laminated timber were produced (i.e., one with a glued edge-joint and the other three with nonglued edge joints) in the lamina at different positions toward the depth direction. Shear tests using an asymmetric four-point bending method were then conducted for these glued laminated timber specimens. The results showed that although the glued edge-joint specimens had the highest shear strength in all groups, the shear strength decreased as the distance from the adjacent nonglued edge-joint plane decreased. Furthermore, the shear strength of all specimens exceeded the standard shear design strength value (2.1 N/mm2) set by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Japan. Next, the shear strength of the nonglued edge-joint specimens was estimated based on that of the glued edge-joint specimens. Although the mean-estimated shear strength was lower than the mean-measured shear strength, the possibility of the shear strength changing based on the position of the nonglued edge-joint plane specimens from that of the glued edge-joint specimens was still estimated.
One component PUR adhesive is widely used in engineered wood products applications, such as cross-laminated timber (CLT). However, the dramatic deterioration of PUR adhesive bond strength at elevated temperature can out tremendously threat for tall wood building, especially under fire. In this project, we are aiming to improving the bond strength of the PUR adhesive at high temperature by incorporating chemically modified halloysite to improve the poor interface between inorganic fillers and the polymer matrices. To improve the interaction with PUR (Loctite UR20 by Henkel®), the halloysite was chemically grafted with polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (pMDI) (pMDI-H). The effect of adding pMDI modified halloysite to the PUR adhesives was investigated in terms of nanofiller dispersibility, thermal and mechanical properties of the pMDI-halloysite-PUR composite film, and the bonding shear strength of the glued Douglas fir and Spruce-Pine-Fir (SPF) shear blocks under different temperature.
Significant improvement of the bond shear strength can be observed with the addition of 5 and 10% of pMDI-modified PUR adhesive, and the key research findings are summarized as below,
a. pMDI can be successfully grafted onto hydroxylated halloysites to improve its dispersibility in one-component PUR adhesive;
b. Addition of pMDI-H into PUR adhesive can lead to improved glass transition temperature and storage modulus. In contrast, no significant enhancement was observed in h-H added PUR films due to the poor dispersibility;
c. Addition of up to 10% h-H and pMDI-H did not show significant change of the shear strength at 20 °C for both Douglas Fir and SPF;
d. Significant enhancement of shear strength at elevated temperature (60-100 °C) can be observed for 5% and 10% pMDI-H modified PUR adhesive, showing 17% improvement for Douglas Fir and 27-37% for SPF.
Glued laminated timber (glulam) is a wood-based product with frequent use in timber construction. Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) is a species suitable for glulam production and is available with abundance in Portuguese forests. This study assessed the influence of the phase in which the preservative treatment is applied in the surface bonding performance. Several elements were produced considering different treatment scenarios: timber without treatment, timber treated before gluing, and timber treated after gluing. The bonding quality was tested by both shear strength and delamination tests, following the indications given in EN 14080 (2013). Glulam elements treated after gluing (TAG) presented less delamination when compared with the ones treated before gluing (TBG). However, TBG elements presented higher shear strength values than TAG elements. Despite the recorded differences, all the considered sets performed adequately both for delamination and shear strength tests.
Society of Wood Science and Technology International Convention
The application of deconstructable connectors in timber-concrete composite (TCC) floors enables the possibility of disassembly and reuse of timber materials at the end of building’s life. This paper introduces the initial concept of a deconstructable TCC connector comprised of a self-tapping screw embedded in a plug made of rigid polyvinyl chloride and a level adjuster made of silicone rubber. This connection system is versatile and can be applied for prefabrication and in-situ concrete casting of TCC floors in both wet-dry and dry-dry systems. The paper presents the results of preliminary tests on the shear performance of four different configurations of the connector system in T-section glulam-concrete composites. The shear performance is compared to that of a permanent connector made with the same type of self-tapping screw. The failure modes observed are also analyzed to provide technical information for further optimization of the connector in the future.
Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review
The bridge deck slab and the rectangular beam of the glued-wood beam bridge are connected by bolts and studs; thus, the joint surface is prone to slippage, and the beams and plates experience difficulty in bearing loadings together. This difficulty results in problems, such as stress concentration and screw corrosion and loosening, and weakens structural bearing capacity, stiffness, and integrity. In this study, an experimental model of glued timber T-section beams formed by gluing between bridge decks and rectangular beams and a calculation method for T-beam shear stress were proposed to improve the bearing capacity, stiffness, and integrity of the structure for ensuring that the bridge deck and the rectangular beam jointly bear stress. Three sets of beams, namely orthogonal T-beams, parallel T-beams, and rectangular beams were made using Larix gmelinii larch boards and structural glue to perform static bending bearing capacity test for examining the strain, deflection, and ultimate bearing capacity of the members and observe the destruction pattern. During the test, the bending shear strength was calculated following the principle of equivalent stiffness and the shear strength formula proposed by Rammer. Furthermore, a finite element model of glulam beams based on elastoplastic theory was established using structural analysis software. The displacement, strain, and failure mechanism of the members under the test loads were simulated and analysed using the model to verify the test results. Results demonstrate that, when the three types of beams are bent, they are sheared along the grain near the central axis of the section. The bonding surface between the wing plate and rib of the T-beam is undamaged, and the bonding is reliable with strong structural integrity. Compared with those of rectangular beams, the bearing capacity (limit load), bending stiffness, and ductility coefficient of the parallel T-beams are increased by 71%, 189%, and 23%, respectively. Compared with those of rectangular beams, the bearing capacity, bending stiffness, and ductility coefficient of the orthogonal T-beams are increased by 33%, 28%, and 25%, respectively. Compared with those of rectangular beams, the bearing capacity, bending stiffness, and ductility coefficient of the glulam T-beams are greatly improved. By considering the principle of equivalent stiffness and using the Rammer formula, the shear strength test values of orthogonal T-beams and rectangular beams of glulam deviate from the calculated values by 8.0% and -5.6%, respectively, which indicates good agreement. However, the shear strength test value of the parallel T-beams deviates from the calculated value by 19.2%, which indicates slightly lower calculation accuracy. The finite element analysis is consistent with the results of the experiment. This study provides certain references for the engineering design of glulam T-beams.
The feasibility of manufacturing cross-laminated timber (CLT) from southern yellow pine (United States grown) treated with micronized copper azole type C (MCA-C) preservative was evaluated. Lumber (2x6 visually graded no. 2 boards) was treated to two retention levels (1.0 and 2.4 kg/m3 ), planed to a thickness of 35 mm, and assembled along with an untreated control group using three adhesive systems following product specifications: melamine formaldehyde (MF), resorcinol formaldehyde (RF), and one-component polyurethane (PUR). Block shear and delamination tests were conducted to examine the bonding performance in accordance with ASTM D905 and ASTM D2559 Standards, respectively. One-way analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis H test were conducted to evaluate the effects of preservative retention and adhesive type on block shear strength (BSS) and wood failure percentage (WFP). Regardless of adhesive type, the 1.0 kg/m3 retention treatment significantly lowered BSS compared to the untreated control. CLT composed of the laminations treated at 2.4 kg/m3 maintained BSS when PUR and RF were used but not MF. The average WFP of each CLT configuration ranged from 89% to 99%. The untreated CLT specimens did not experience any delamination under accelerated weathering cycles. The delamination rates of the treated specimens assembled using MF and RF increased with the preservative retention level, while PUR provided delamination rates less than 1% to the laminations treated at both levels. These combined data suggest that, under the conditions tested, PUR provided overall better bonding performance than MF and RF for MCA-C treated wood.
Traditional wood-wood connections, widely used in the past, have been progressively replaced by steel fasteners and bonding processes in modern timber constructions. However, the emergence of digital fabrication and innovative engineered timber products have offered new design possibilities for wood-wood connections. The design-to-production workflow has evolved considerably over the last few decades, such that a large number of connections with various geometries can now be easily produced. These connections have become a cost-competitive alternative for the edgewise connection of thin timber panels. Several challenges remain in order to broaden the use of this specific joining technique into common timber construction practice: (1) prove the applicability at the building scale, (2) propose a standardized construction system, (3) develop a convenient calculation model for practice, and (4) investigate the mechanical behavior of wood-wood connections. The first building implementation of digitally produced through-tenon connections for a folded-plate structure is presented in this work. Specific computational tools for the design and manufacture of more than 300 different plates were efficiently applied in a multi-stakeholder project environment. Cross-laminated timber panels were investigated for the first time, and the potential of such connections was demonstrated for different engineered timber products. Moreover, this work demonstrated the feasibility of this construction system at the building scale. For a more resilient and locally distributed construction process, a standardized system using through-tenon connections and commonly available small panels was developed to reconstitute basic housing components. Based on a case-study with industry partners, the fabrication and assembly processes were validated with prototypes made of oriented strand board. Their structural performance was investigated by means of a numerical model and a comparison with glued and nailed assemblies. The results showed that through-tenon connections are a viable alternative to commonly used mechanical fasteners. So far, the structural analysis of such construction systems has been mainly achieved with complex finite element models, not in line with the simplicity of basic housing elements. A convenient calculation model for practice, which can capture the semi-rigid behavior of the connections and predict the effective bending stiffness, was thus introduced and subjected to large-scale bending tests. The proposed model was in good agreement with the experimental results, highlighting the importance of the connection behavior. The in-plane behavior of through-tenon connections for several timber panel materials was characterized through an experimental campaign to determine the load-carrying capacity and slip modulus required for calculation models. Based on the test results, existing guidelines were evaluated to safely apply these connections in structural elements while a finite element model was developed to approximate their performance. This work constitutes a firm basis for the optimization of design guidelines and the creation of an extensive database on digitally produced wood-wood connections. Finally, this thesis provides a convenient design framework for the newly developed standardized timber construction system and a solid foundation for research into digitally produced wood-wood connections.
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels are fabricated with their layers stacked crosswise. Owing to the low shear modulus and strength in the rolling shear direction, the shear properties of cross-layers influence the overall deflection and shear capacities of CLT panels. The aim of the present study is to determine the rolling shear properties of Japanese cedar and investigate how annual ring patterns and lamina geometry influence shear properties. Using a test configuration similar to the standard shear test configuration prescribed in European Standards (EN 408), a single lamina shear test was conducted. To investigate the influence of thickness-to-width aspect ratio of the lamina on the rolling shear properties, samples with three different widths, including 62, 88, and 112 mm, with a constant thickness of 24 mm were tested. The geometrical features of the annual ring patterns of each test sample were measured. The mean rolling shear moduli were 72, 91, and 109 MPa, and the mean rolling shear strengths were 1.54, 1.83, and 2.02 MPa for the 62-, 88-, and 112-mm sample widths, respectively. Shear strength was highly correlated with shear modulus. The mean shear modulus and strength, in addition to the 5% quantile, increased with an increase in lamina width. Across all sample widths, rolling shear modulus and strength decreased with an increasing radial distance from the pith. Using the principle of continuum mechanics, the influence of the annual ring angle relative to the shear force direction was examined quantitatively using the finite element method. The results suggest that shear modulus and its variance are influenced greatly by the annual ring structure.
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering
This experimental research is conducted on shear strength performance of glue laminated timber parallel to glue line using Malaysian tropical hardwood Melunak and Mengkulang. The objective of this research was to determine the shear strength values of Melunak and Mengkulang with the observation and comparison of the wood and glue failure percentage of both species. Total 30 numbers of wood specimens which; 15 numbers of wood for Melunak and 15 numbers of wood Mengkulang. The block specimen dimension was 50x50x50mm, then tested using a shear block fixtures and Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The Malaysian Standard, MS758:2001 was used in conducting shear block test and to obtain the shear strength values for both specimen. Both wood tested specimen results in 9.05% different in its shear strength values, where Melunak average shear strength was higher 0.92N/mm2 than Mengkulang. Test result of shear failure to grain direction in both specimen shows that failure occurred in wood was due to wood surface area. The Melunak average percentage failure of wood and glues area 93.7% and 6.3% respectively. While for Mengkulang average failure percentage for wood and glue area were 89.7% and 10.3% respectively. The difference in result of wood failure of both specimen area directly related to the density of specimens, in which Mengkulang wood has a higher density than Melunak. Both specimens reached to its minimum shear strength capacity that was about 6N/mm2 set by the Malaysian standard MS758:2001. Both Melunak and Mengkulang wood tested specimen results in 9.05% different in its shear strength values, where Melunak average shear strength is higher about 0.92N/mm2 than Mengkulang.
International Scientific Conference on Hardwood Processing
The growing demand for engineered wood products in the construction sector has resulted in the diversification of the product offer. Used marginally in structural products in North America, northern hardwoods are now attracting a growing interest from industry and policy makers because of their outstanding strength as well as their high availability and distinctive appearance. Currently, there is no standard in Canada governing the use of hardwoods in the manufacturing of glued-laminated timber. As part of a larger project aiming to assemble the basic knowledge that would lead to such standard, the specific objective of this study was to assess the shear strength in dry and wet conditions of assemblies made from different hardwood species and structural adhesives. Results suggest that a mean shear strength as high as 20.5 MPa for white oak, 18.8 MPa for white ash and respectively 18.2 MPa and 17.4 MPa for yellow birch and paper birch can be obtained in dry conditions. The choice of adhesive did not affect the dry shear strength of our specimens, but differences were observed in wet conditions. Specimens bonded with melamine-formaldehyde adhesive had generally the highest wet shear strength and wood failure values. Our results also highlight the important influence of wood density on the percentage of failure that occurs in wood and, to a lesser extent, on shear strength. Further investigations on finger joint strength and full-size bending tests will allow confirming the potential for the investigated species to be used in glued-laminated timber.