Project contact is Daniel Dowden at Michigan Technological University
This award will investigate a low-damage solution for cross-laminated timber (CLT) seismic force-resisting systems (SFRSs) using a novel uplift friction damper (UFD) device for seismically resilient mass-timber buildings. The UFD device will embrace the natural rocking wall behavior that is expected in tall CLT buildings, provide stable energy dissipation, and exhibit self-centering characteristics. Structural repair of buildings with these devices is expected to be minimal after a design level earthquake. Although CLT has emerged as a construction material that has revitalized the timber industry, there exists a lack of CLT-specific seismic energy dissipation devices that can integrate holistically with the natural kinematics of CLT-based SFRSs. CLT wall panels themselves do not provide any measurable seismic energy dissipation. As a payload to the large-scale, ten-story CLT building specimen to be tested on the Natural Hazards Engineering Research Infrastructure (NHERI) shake table at the University of California, San Diego, as part of NSF award 1636164, “Collaborative Research: A Resilience-based Seismic Design Methodology for Tall Wood Buildings,” this project will conduct a series of tests with the UFD devices installed on the CLT building specimen. These tests will bridge analytical and numerical models with the high fidelity test data collected with realistic boundary and earthquake loading conditions. The calibrated models will be incorporated in a probabilistic numerical framework to establish a design methodology for seismically resilient tall wood buildings, leading to a more diverse and eco-sustainable urban landscape. This project will provide local elementary school outreach activities, integrate participation of undergraduate minorities and underrepresented groups into the research activities, and foster graduate level curriculum innovations. Project data will be archived and made available publicly in the NSF-supported NHERI Data Depot (https://www.DesignSafe-CI.org). This award contributes to NSF's role in the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP).
The research objectives of this payload project are to: 1) bridge the fundamental mechanistic UFD models linking analytical and numerical models necessary for seismic response prediction of seismically resilient CLT-based SFRSs, 2) characterize the fundamental dynamic UFD behavior with validation and calibration through large-scale tests with realistic boundary conditions and earthquake loadings, and 3) integrate low-damage, friction-based damping system alternatives within a resilience-based seismic design methodology for tall wood buildings. To achieve these objectives, the test data collected will provide a critical pathway to reliably establish numerical and analytical models that extend the shake table test results to a broad range of archetype buildings. The seismic performance of mass-timber archetype building systems will be established through collapse risk assessment using incremental dynamic analyses. This will provide a first step in the longer term goal of establishing code-based seismic performance factors for CLT-based SFRSs.
Monotonic and cyclic tests were carried out to determine strength and stiffness characteristics of 2.44 m (8 ft) long shear connections with 8 mm and 10 mm diameter self-tapping screws. The goal of this research is tocompare test values of cross-laminated timber (CLT) diaphragm connections in seismic force-resisting systems tothe design values calculated from formulas in the National Design Specification for Wood Construction (USA)and the Eurocode. Understanding and quantifying the behavior of these shear connections will provide structural engineers with increased confidence in designing these components, especially with regard to the seismic forceresisting systems. Ratios of the experimental yield strength (from the yield point on the load-deflection curve) to factored design strength were in the range of 2.1–6.1. In the ASCE 41-13 acceptance criteria analysis, the mfactors for the Life Safety performance level in cyclic tests ranged from 1.6 to 1.8 for surface spline connections and from 0.9 to 1.7 for cyclic half-lap connections. The half-lap connections with a unique combination of angled and vertical screws performed exceptionally well with both high, linear elastic initial stiffness and ductile, postpeak behavior.
This paper examines CLT-steel hybrid systems at three, six, and nine storey heights to
increase seismic force resistance compared to a plain wood system. CLT panels are used as
infill in a steel moment frame combining the ductility of a steel moment frame system with a
stiffness and light weight of CLT panels. This system allows for the combination of high
strength and ductility of steel with high stiffness and light weight of timber. This thesis
examines the seismic response of this type of hybrid seismic force resisting system (SFRS) in
regions with moderate to high seismic hazard indices. A detailed non-linear model of a 2D
infilled frame system and compared to the behavior of a similar plain steel frame at each
Parametric analysis was performed determining the effect of the panels and the connection
configuration, steel frame design, and panel configuration in a multi-bay system. Static
pushover loading was applied alongside semi-static cyclic loading to allow a basis of
comparison to future experimental tests. Dynamic analysis using ten ground motions linearly
scaled to the uniform hazard spectra for Vancouver, Canada with a return period of 2% in 50
years as, 10% in 50 years, and 50% in 50 years to examine the effect of infill panels on the
interstorey drift of the three, six, and nine storey. The ultimate and yield strength and drift
capacity are determined and used to determine the overstrength and ductility factors as
described in the National Building Code of Canada 2010.
Project contact is Jasmine Wang at the National Research Council Canada
Currently, only light frame wood-based shearwall and braced and moment-resisting frames are given in the NBC 2015 as acceptable solutions, with the height limit for these SFRSs in high seismic zones being 20 m (6 storeys). There is no acceptable solution for using Timber SFRS in buildings more than 20 m high in high seismic zones. The Tall Wood building projects in Canada have been following the “Alternative Solution” path with supporting test data and analysis that could demonstrate equivalent or better performance than building and fire code or local condition requirements, and were approved on a case-by-case basis by the Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). The Tall Wood projects have been and will be faced with different level of difficulties and challenges depending on the familiarity of AHJ with tall wood construction. Furthermore, there are no consistent procedure and performance criteria to analyze and evaluate the Timber SFRS in tall mass timber buildings that could be referenced by the AHJ.
This project is to undertake the work related to:
Phase I: development of a Technical Guide with a procedure for evaluation of the seismic performance of Timber SFRS in tall mass timber buildings.
Phase II: evaluation of an example solution of Mass Timber SFRS in accordance with the developed Technical Guide as a “Demo” project.
Project contacts are Arijit Sinha, Andre Barbosa and Barbara Simpson at Oregon State University
The results of this proposal will provide guidance on efficient design and analysis strategies for wood building construction including rocking/post-tensioned and pivoting spines, a next-generation seismic force resisting system, for improved performance, safety, sustainability, and economy. The use of wood in tall buildings is limitied by strength and stiffness considerations. The use of CLT and MPP shear walls, supplemented by energy dissipators may be able to aleviate this problem. Several knowledge gaps exist in terms of the performance of mass timber lateral force resisting systems (LFRS), interconnectivity and compatibility between the modules and LFRS-to-gravity system, and potential hybridization of structural materials for the gravity system and LFRS. The recent 2017 two-story shake table test is the only full scale dynamic on rocking CLT LFRS with energy dissipators. Importantly, since MPP panels are also a recent addition in the mass timber industry, no experimental data exist regarding the self-centering performance of post-tensioned MPP wall panels.
Technical Guide for Evaluation of Seismic Force Resisting Systems and Their Force Modification Factors for Use in the National Building Code of Canada with Concepts Illustrated Using a Cantilevered Wood CLT Shear Wall Example
The objective of this guideline is to provide a simple, systematic, and sufficient procedure for evaluating the performance of Seismic Force Resisting Systems (SFRSs) and to determine the appropriate ductilityrelated (Rd) and over-strength related (Ro) force modification factors for implementation in the National Building Code of Canada (NBC). The procedure relies on the application of non-linear dynamic analysis for quantification of the seismic performance of the SFRS. Note that the procedure is also suitable for assessing force modification factors (RdRo values) of systems already implemented in the NBC.
The audience for this guideline are those (called the “project study team” in this document) who submit proposals for new SFRSs with defined RdRo values to the NBC for inclusion in Subsection 4.1.8., Earthquake Loads and Effects, of Division B of the NBC. This guideline can also be used by a team performing an alternative design solution for a specific project and seeking acceptance from authority having jurisdiction. In such cases, not all aspects of this guideline (e.g., having different archetypes) will be needed.
North American building codes currently provide strict limits on height of wood structures, where for example, in Canada wood structures are limited to 4 or 5 storeys. This paper examines wood-steel hybrid system to increase seismic force resistance beyo...