Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is an innovative wood product that was developed approximately two decades ago in Europe and has since been gaining in popularity. Based on the experience of European researchers and designers, it is believed that CLT can provide the U.S. market the opportunity to build mid- and high-rise wood buildings. This Chapter presents a summary of past research and state-of-the-art understanding of the seismic behavior of CLT. As a new structural system to the United States, the design of CLT for seismic applications is expected to be made through alternative method provisions of the building codes. Efforts to develop seismic design coefficients for use in the equivalent lateral force procedures in the United States are underway. Nonlinear numerical modeling of CLT is presented and used to provide and indication of the effect of designing with different R-factors. Using nominal CLT wall capacity values derived from isolated wall tests, the illustrative example showed that an R-factor of approximately 2 can result in a low probability of collapse (less than 10 percent) at MCE intensity.
New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference
April 27-29, 2017, Wellington, New Zealand
With global urbanization trends, the demands for tall residential and mixed-use buildings in the range of 8~20 stories are increasing. One new structural system in this height range are tall wood buildings which have been built in select locations around the world...
European experience shows that Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) can be competitive in mid-rise and high-rise buildings. Although this system has not been used to the same extent so far in North America, it can be viable wood structural solution for the shift towards sustainable...
Advancement in engineered wood products altered the existing building height limitations and enhanced wooden structural members that are available on the market. These coupled with the need for a sustainable and green solution to address the ever-growing urbanization demand, avails wood as possible candidate for primary structural material in the construction industry. To this end, several researches carried out in the past decade to come up with sound structural solutions using a timber based structural system. Green and Karsh (2012) introduced the FFTT system; Tesfamariam et al. (2015) developed force-based design guideline for steel infilled with CLT shear walls, and SOM (2013) introduced the concrete jointed mass timber hybrid structural concepts. In this research, the basic structural concepts proposed by SOM (2013) is adopted. The objective of this research is to develop a wind and earthquake design guideline for concrete jointed tall mass timber buildings in scope from 10- to 40-storey office or residential buildings. The specific objective of this research is as follow:
Wind serviceability design guideline for hybrid mass-timber structures.
Calibration of design wind load factors for the serviceability wind design of hybrid tall mass timber structures.
Guidelines to perform probabilistic modeling, reliability assessment, and wind load factor calibration.
Overstrength related modification factor Ro and ductility related modification factor Rd for future implementation in the NBCC.
Force-based design guideline following the capacity based design principles.