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Development and Full-Scale Validation of Resilience-Based Seismic Design of Tall Wood Buildings: The NHERI Tallwood Project

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1477
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Wood Building Systems
Author
Pei, Shiling
van de Lindt, John
Ricles, James
Sause, Richard
Berman, Jeffrey
Ryan, Keri
Dolan, Daniel
Buchanan, Andrew
Robinson, Thomas
McDonnell, Eric
Blomgren, Hans-Erik
Popovski, Marjan
Rammer, Douglas
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
New Zealand
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Keywords
Tall Wood
Post-Tensioned
Rocking Walls
Resilience-Based Seismic Design
Shaking Table Test
Language
English
Conference
New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference
Research Status
Complete
Notes
April 27-29, 2017, Wellington, New Zealand
Summary
With global urbanization trends, the demands for tall residential and mixeduse buildings in the range of 8~20 stories are increasing. One new structural system in this height range are tall wood buildings which have been built in select locations around the world using a relatively new heavy timber structural material known as cross laminated timber (CLT). With its relatively light weight, there is consensus amongst the global wood seismic research and practitioner community that tall wood buildings have a substantial potential to become a key solution to building future seismically resilient cities. This paper introduces the NHERI Tallwood Project recentely funded by the U.S. National Science Fundation to develop and validate a seismic design methodology for tall wood buildings that incorporates high-performance structural and nonstructural systems and can quantitatively account for building resilience. This will be accomplished through a series of research tasks planned over a 4-year period. These tasks will include mechanistic modeling of tall wood buildings with several variants of post-tensioned rocking CLT wall systems, fragility modeling of structural and non-structural building components that affect resilience, fullscale biaxial testing of building sub-assembly systems, development of a resilience-based seismic design (RBSD) methodology, and finally a series of full-scale shaking table tests of a 10-story CLT building specimen to validate the proposed design. The project will deliver a new tall building type capable of transforming the urban building landscape by addressing urbanization demand while enhancing resilience and sustainability.
Online Access
Free
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Force Modification Factors for Cross Laminated Timber Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue363
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Seismic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Pei, Shiling
Popovski, Marjan
van de Lindt, John
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2012
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Performance-Based Seismic Design
Canada
US
Force Modification Factors
Mid-Rise
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
European experience shows that Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) can be competitive in mid-rise and high-rise buildings. Although this system has not been used to the same extent so far in North America, it can be viable wood structural solution for the shift towards sustainable densification of urban and suburban centers. For these reasons FPInnovations has undertaken a multi-disciplinary project on determining the performance of a typical CLT construction, including quantifying the seismic resistance and force modification factors for CLT buildings in Canada and the US. In this report, a performance-based seismic design (PBSD) of a CLT building was conducted and the seismic response of the CLT building was compared to that of a wood-frame structure tested during the NEESWood project. A suitable force modification factors (R-factors) for CLT mid-rise buildings with different fasteners were recommended for seismic design in Canada and the US. The six-storey NEESWood Capstone building was redesigned as a CLT building using the PBSD procedure developed during the NEESWood project. The results from the quasi-static tests on CLT walls performed at FPInnovations were used as input information for modeling of the main load resisting elements of the structure, the CLT walls. Once the satisfactory design of the CLT mid-rise structure was established through PBSD, a force-based design was developed with varying R-factors and that design was compared to the PBSD result. In this way, suitable R-factors were calibrated so that they can yield equivalent seismic performance of the CLT building when designed using the traditional force-based design methods. Based on the results of this study it is recommended that a value of Rd=2.5 and Ro=1.5 can be assigned for structures with symmetrical floor plans according to NBCC. In the US an R=4.5 can be used for symmetrical CLT structures designed according to ASCE7. These values can be assigned provided that the design values for CLT walls considered (and implemented in the material design standards) are similar to the values determined in this study using the kinematics model developed that includes the influence of the hold-downs in the CLT wall resistance. Design of the CLT building with those R-factors using the equivalent static procedures in the US and Canada will result in the CLT building having similar seismic performance to that of the tested wood-frame NEESWood building, which had only minor non-structural damage during a rare earthquake event.
Online Access
Free
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Large-Scale Dynamic Testing of Rocking Cross Laminated Timber Walls

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2298
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Author
Wichman, Sarah
Publisher
University of Washington
Year of Publication
2018
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Keywords
Tall Wood
Seismic Force Resisting System
Earthquake Resistance
Resilience-Based Seismic Design
Shake Table Test
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Modeling Techniques for Post-tensioned Cross-laminated Timber Rocking Walls

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2396
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Seismic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls

NHERI Tall Wood Project

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2556
Topic
Seismic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
MPP (Mass Plywood Panel)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Organization
Colorado School of Mines
LEVER Architecture
Lehigh University
University of Washington
University of Nevada
University of California San Diego
Colorado State University
Oregon State University
TallWood Design Institute
Forest Products Laboratory
Country of Publication
United States
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
MPP (Mass Plywood Panel)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Lateral Seismic Loads
Resilience-Based Seismic Design
Performance-Based Seismic Design
Commercial Buildings
Open Floor Plan
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Project contact is Shiling Pei at the Colorado School of Mines
Summary
NHERI Tallwood project is an effort to develop and validate a resilient-based seismic design methodology for tall wood buildings. The project started in September 2016 and will last till 2020. The project team will validate the design methodology through shake table testing of a 10-story full-scaled wood building specimen at NHERI@UCSD. It will be the world's largest wood building tested at full-scale.
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Nonlinear Static Seismic Response of a Building Equipped with Hybrid Cross-Laminated Timber Floor Diaphragms and Concentric X-Braced Steel Frames

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2761
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Steel-Timber Composite
Application
Floors
Author
Roncari, Andrea
Gobbi, Filippo
Loss, Cristiano
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Steel-Timber Composite
Application
Floors
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Seismic Design
Hybrid Structures
Lateral Resistance
Semi-rigid Diaphragms
Load Distribution
Seismic Performance
Pushover Analysis
Nonlinear Static Analysis
Finite Element Model
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
Simplified seismic design procedures mostly recommend the adoption of rigid floor diaphragms when forming a building’s lateral force-resisting structural system. While rigid behavior is compatible with many reinforced concrete or composite steel-concrete floor systems, the intrinsic stiffness properties of wood and ductile timber connections of timber floor slabs typically make reaching a such comparable in-plane response difficult. Codes or standards in North America widely cover wood-frame construction, with provisions given for both rigid and flexible floor diaphragms designs. Instead, research is ongoing for emerging cross-laminated-timber (CLT) and hybrid CLT-based technologies, with seismic design codification still currently limited. This paper deals with a steel-CLT-based hybrid structure built by assembling braced steel frames with CLT-steel composite floors. Preliminary investigation on the performance of a 3-story building under seismic loads is presented, with particular attention to the influence of in-plane timber diaphragms flexibility on the force distribution and lateral deformation at each story. The building complies with the Italian Building Code damage limit state and ultimate limit state design requirements by considering a moderate seismic hazard scenario. Nonlinear static analyses are performed adopting a finite-element model calibrated based on experimental data. The CLT-steel composite floor in-plane deformability shows mitigated effects on the load distribution into the bracing systems compared to the ideal rigid behavior. On the other hand, the lateral deformation always rises at least 17% and 21% on average, independently of the story and load distribution along the building’s height.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Performance Based Design and Force Modification Factors for CLT Structures

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue928
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Seismic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Walls
Author
Pei, Shiling
Popovski, Marjan
van de Lindt, John
Year of Publication
2012
Country of Publication
Sweden
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Walls
Topic
Seismic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Quasi-Static Tests
R-factors
Performance-Based Seismic Design
US
Canada
Language
English
Conference
CIB-W18 Meeting
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 27-30, 2012, Växjö, Sweden p.293-304
Summary
In this paper, a performance-based seismic design (PBSD) of a CLT building was conducted and the seismic response of the CLT building was compared to that of a wood-frame structure tested during the NEESWood project. The results from the quasi-static tests on CLT walls performed at FPInnovations were used as input information for modelling of the CLT walls, the main lateral load resisting elements of the structure. Once the satisfactory design of the CLT mid-rise structure was established through PBSD, a force-based design was developed with varying R-factors and that design was compared to the PBSD result. In this way, suitable R-factors were calibrated so that they can yield equivalent seismic performance of the CLT building when designed using the traditional force-based design methods. Based on the results of this study it is recommended that a value of Rd=2.5 and Ro=1.5 can be assigned for structures with symmetrical floor plans in the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC). In the US an R=4.3 can be used for symmetrical CLT structures designed according to ASCE 7. These values can be assigned provided that the design values for CLT walls considered (and implemented in the material design standards) are similar to the values determined in this study using the kinematics model developed that includes the influence of the hold-downs in the CLT wall resistance. Design of the CLT building with those R-factors using the equivalent static procedures in the US and Canada will result in the CLT building having similar seismic performance to that of the tested wood-frame NEESWood building, which had only minor non-structural damage during a rare earthquake event.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Progress on the Development of Strong Seismic Resilient Tall CLT Buildings in the Pacific Northwest

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1881
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Pei, Shiling
Berman, Jeffrey
Dolan, Daniel
van de Lindt, John
Ricles, James
Sause, Richard
Blomgren, Hans-Erik
Popovski, Marjan
Rammer, Douglas
Year of Publication
2014
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Tall Wood
Seismic Performance
Resilience-Based Seismic Design
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Summary
As urban densification occurs in U.S. regions of high seismicity, there is a natural demand for seismically resilient tall buildings that are reliable, economically viable, and can be rapidly constructed. In urban regions on the west coast of the U.S., specifically the Pacific Northwest, there is significant interest in utilizing CLT in 8-20 story residential and commercial buildings due to its appeal as a potential locally sourced, sustainable and economically competitive building material. In this study, results from a multi-disciplinary discussion on the feasibility and challenges in enabling tall CLT building for the U.S. market were summarized. A three-tiered seismic performance expectations that can be implemented for tall CLT buildings was proposed to encourage the adoption of the system at a practical level. A road map for building tall CLT building in the U.S. was developed, together with three innovative conceptual CLT systems that can help reaching resiliency goals. This study is part of an on-going multi-institution research project funded by National Science Foundation.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Seismic Design of Timber Buildings: Highlighted Challenges and Future Trends

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2388
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Stepinac, Mislav
Šušteršic, Iztok
Gavric, Igor
Rajcic, Vlatka
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Journal Article
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Keywords
Seismic Design
Tall Timber Buildings
Timber Composites
Seismic Retrofitting
Eurocode 8
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Applied Sciences
Summary
Use of timber as a construction material has entered a period of renaissance since the development of high-performance engineered wood products, enabling larger and taller buildings to be built. In addition, due to substantial contribution of the building sector to global energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and waste production, sustainable solutions are needed, for which timber has shown a great potential as a sustainable, resilient and renewable building alternative, not only for single family homes but also for mid-rise and high-rise buildings. Both recent technological developments in timber engineering and exponentially increased use of engineered wood products and wood composites reflect in deficiency of current timber codes and standards. This paper presents an overview of some of the current challenges and emerging trends in the field of seismic design of timber buildings. Currently existing building codes and the development of new generation of European building codes are presented. Ongoing studies on a variety topics within seismic timber engineering are presented, including tall timber and hybrid buildings, composites with timber and seismic retrofitting with timber. Crucial challenges, key research needs and opportunities are addressed and critically discussed.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Seismic Design of Timber Buildings with a Direct Displacement-Based Design Method

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1904
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Seismic
Design and Systems
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Frames
Wood Building Systems
Author
Loss, Cristiano
Piazza, Maurizio
Zonta, Daniele
Editor
Cruz, Paulo J.S.
Publisher
CRC Press
Year of Publication
2013
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Book/Guide
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Frames
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Performance-Based Seismic Design
Direct Displacement-Based Design
Displacement
Damping
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Structures and Architecture: Concepts, Applications and Challenges
ISBN
978-1-4822-2461-0
Summary
Modern seismic design procedures are widely represented by the concept of Performance-Based Seismic Design (PBSD). Direct Displacement-Based Design (DDBD) procedure for PBSD of buildings is considered a very promising method which uses displacement as an input design parameter. The DDBD procedure first codified by Priestley requires an a priori estimate of the design displacement and the associated equivalent viscous damping of the structure, at design performance levels. In this paper, design parameters for the ultimate limit state have been developed for a common construction system for timber buildings. Such parameters are defined as a function of mechanical and geometrical connection configurations.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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12 records – page 1 of 2.