Cross laminated timber (CLT) panels have been gaining increasing attention in the construction field as a diaphragm in mid- to high-rise building projects. Moreover, in the last few years, due to their seismic performances, low environmental impact, ease of construction, etc., many research studies have been conducted about their use as infill walls in hybrid construction solutions. With more than a half of the megacities in the world located in seismic regions, there is an urgent need of new retrofitting methods that can improve the seismic behavior of the buildings, upgrading, at the same time, the architectural aspects while minimizing the environmental impact and costs associated with the common retrofit solutions. In this work, the seismic, energetic, and architectural rehabilitation of tall reinforced concrete (RC) buildings using CLT panels are investigated. An existing 110 m tall RC frame building located in Huizhou (China) was chosen as a case study. The first objective was to investigate the performances of the building through the non-linear static analysis (push-over analysis) used to define structural weaknesses with respect to earthquake actions. The architectural solution proposed for the building is the result of the combination between structural and architectonic needs: internal spaces and existing facades were re-designed in order to improve not only the seismic performances but also energy efficiency, quality of the air, natural lighting, etc. A full explanation of the FEM modeling of the cross laminated timber panels is reported in the following. Non-linear FEM models of connections and different wall configurations were validated through a comparison with available lab tests, and finally, a real application on the existing 3D building was discussed.
International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
August 4–7, 2013, Portland, Oregon, USA
As sustainable building design practices become more prevalent in today’s construction market, designers are looking to alternative materials for novel design strategies. This paper presents a case study comparing the sustainability performance of cross laminated timber (CLT) and reinforced concrete. A comparative sustainability assessment of cross laminated timber and concrete, considering economic, environmental, and social aspects was performed. Environmental impact is measured in terms of CO2 equivalent, economic impact is measured with total sector cost (including sector interdependencies), and qualitative metrics were considered for social impact. In order to conduct an accurate performance comparison, a functional unit of building facade volume was chosen for each product. For this paper, several end-of-life strategies were modeled for CLT and concrete facades. To understand environmental, economic, and social impact, three different scenarios were analyzed to compare performance of both CLT and concrete, including cradle to gate product manufacturing, manufacturing with landfill end-of-life, and manufacturing with recycling end-of-life. Environmental LCA was modeled using GaBi 5.0 Education Edition, which includes its own database for elements including materials, processes, and transportation. To compare the economic impact, Carnegie Mellon’s EIO-LCA online tool is used. Finally, social life cycle impact was considered by identifying process attributes of both products that affect the social domain. Based on this analysis, the use of CLT has a significantly lower environmental impact than concrete, however there are additional costs.
This paper aims to investigate the energy saving and carbon reduction performance of cross-laminated timber residential buildings in the severe cold region of China through a computational simulation approach. The authors selected Harbin as the simulation environment, designed reference residential buildings with different storeys which were constructed using reinforced concrete (RC) and cross-laminated timber (CLT) systems, then simulated the energy performance using the commercial software IESTM and finally made comparisions between the RC and CLT buildings. The results show that the estimated energy consumption and carbon emissions for CLT buildings are 9.9% and 13.2% lower than those of RC buildings in view of life-cycle assessment. This indicates that the CLT construction system has good potential for energy saving when compared to RC in the severe cold region of China. The energy efficiency of residential buildings is closely related to the height for both RC and CLT buildings. In spite of the higher cost of materials for high-rise buildings, both RC and CLT tall residential buildings have better energy efficiency than low-rise and mid-rise buildings in the severe cold region of China.
The application of cross-laminated timber (CLT) as floor panels is limited by excessive deflection and vibration. A composite system combining CLT and ultra high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) was developed to extend span limits. Push-off tests were conducted on different connectors, and a glued-in rod connector was chosen and further refined for the proposed system. Static bending tests and free vibration tests were conducted on bare CLT panels and two composite specimens. By comparing the results, it is concluded that the proposed system considerably extend the span limits of CLT panels.
With the growing importance of the principle of sustainability, there is an increasing interest in the use of timber–concrete composite for floors, especially for medium and large span buildings. Timber–concrete composite combines the better properties of both materials and reduces their disadvantages. The most common choice is to use a cross-laminated timber panel as a base for a timber–concrete composite. But a timber–concrete composite solution with plywood rib panels with an adhesive connection between the timber base and fibre reinforced concrete layer is offered as the more cost-effective constructive solution. An algorithm for determining the rational parameters of the panel cross-section has been developed. The software was written based on the proposed algorithm to compare timber–concrete composite panels with cross-laminated timber and plywood rib panel bases. The developed algorithm includes recommendations of forthcoming Eurocode 5 for timber–concrete composite design and an innovative approach to vibration calculations. The obtained data conclude that the proposed structural solution has up to 73% lower cost and up to 71% smaller self-weight. Thus, the proposed timber–concrete composite construction can meet the needs of society for cost-effective and sustainable innovative floor solutions.
Friction-based dampers are a valid solution for non-invasive seismic retrofitting interventions of existing structures, particularly reinforced-concrete (RC) structures. The design of friction-based dampers is challenging: underestimating the slip force prevents the full use of the potential of the device, which attains the maximum admissible displacement earlier than expected. By contrast, overestimating the slip force may cause delayed triggering of the device when the structure has suffered extensive damage. Therefore, designing the appropriate slip force is an optimization problem. The optimal slip force guarantees the highest inter-story drift reduction. The authors formulated the optimization problem for designing a specific class of friction-based dampers, the asymmetric friction connection (AFC), devised as part of the ongoing multidisciplinary Horizon 2020 research project e-SAFE (Energy and Seismic AFfordable rEnovation solutions). The seismic retrofitting technology involves the external application of modular prefabricated cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels on existing external walls. Friction dampers connect the CLT panels to the beams of two consecutive floors. The friction depends on the mutual sliding of two metal plates, pressed against each other by preloaded bolts. This study determines the optimal slip force, which guarantees the best seismic performance of an RC structural archetype. The authors investigate the nonlinear dynamic response of a coupled mechanical system (RC frame-friction damper) under a set of strong-motion earthquakes, using non-differential hysteresis models calibrated on the experimental cyclic responses. The solution of the optimization leads to the proposal of a preliminary simplified design procedure, useful for practitioners.
This thesis examines the development of a superstructure for a slab-on-girder wood-concrete composite highway bridge. Wood-concrete composite bridges have existed since the 1930's. Historically, they have been limited to spans of less than 10 m. Renewed research interest over the past two decades has shown great potential for longer span capabilities. Through composite action and suitable detailing, improvements in strength, stiffness, and durability can be achieved versus conventional wood bridges. The bridge makes use of a slender ultra-high performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) deck made partially-composite in longitudinal bending with glued-laminated wood girders. Longitudinal external unbonded post-tensioning is utilized to increase span capabilities. Prefabrication using double-T modules minimizes the need for cast-in-place concrete on-site. Durability is realized through the highly impermeable deck slab that protects the girders from moisture. Results show that the system can span up to 30 m while achieving span-to-depth ratios equivalent or better than competing slab-on-girder bridges.
This thesis discusses the development of a new innovative reinforced concrete hybrid structure. The hybrid structure consists of reinforced concrete frame incorporated with Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) and metallic damper connections. The seismic design of this proposed system was carried out with the displacement-based design framework and the design was successfully verified. First, this study focused to numerically model the conventional metallic (steel slit) damper and validated with the experimental result using the Abaqus finite element program. Then, to minimize the drawbacks of the conventional damper specimen, a parametric study has been carried out by changing the shape parameters of the damper using the factorial design of experiments. The purpose of conducting a parametric study is to find the appropriate configuration of the damper which can perform well with the proposed hybrid system. Further, the importance of the shape parameter and their interactions in the final response was studied using the response surface method. Secondly, the proposed hybrid system with the metallic damper connection was modeled in Extended Three Dimensional Analysis of Building Systems (ETABS) and then the overall behavior of the system was investigated. In addition, a direct displacement-based design framework was developed for the seismic design of this proposed system. To verify the proposed framework, a 2D six storey hybrid structure was modeled using ETABS. Then, a nonlinear time history analysis was conducted for the modeled structure using 50 set of ground motions to evaluate its performance. The results indicate that the proposed design framework is effective in controlling the displacement of the hybrid system under seismic excitation.
This paper focused on energy consumption and carbon emission for heating and cooling during a building’s operation stage, and examined the energy effects of using Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) as an alternative building material to reinforced concrete (RC) in China’s 31 key cities located in different climate zones. The authors designed two seven-story residential buildings, which were constructed with RC framed and CLT systems, separately. This was followed by simulating the energy consumption using commercialized software IESTM under the different climate zones and calculating the carbon emissions. Comparisons were made between RC and CLT systems buildings on the basis of simulation data. The results show that the estimated energy consumption and carbon emission in CLT buildings are much lower than that of RC buildings in all studied cities, which indicates that CLT systems have good potential in reducing carbon emission and saving energy consumption compared to RC. The energy consumptions and carbon emissions in both concrete and CLT buildings are closely related to the climate zones. Buildings in Severe Cold and Cold Regions consumed the most energy and released more carbon. At the national level, the estimated energy consumption at the operation stage, in the studied building with RC frames and CLT system was approximately 465.1 MJ/m2 and 332.6 MJ/m2 per annum, respectively. Despite vast differences in China’s climate zones, the effects of energy saving and carbon reduction potentials of CLT buildings show little relationship to the climate zone. CLT buildings may result in a weighted 29.4% energy saving, which equals 24.6% carbon reductions, compared with RC buildings at the operation stage at national level, although it may vary in different climate zones.