The research presented in this paper examines the shear resistance performance of self-tapping screws (STS) in three-ply cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels. Specifically, the feasibility of using innovative STS assemblies with double inclination of fasteners was investigated for the shear connection of CLT panels. The specimens (1.5×1.5 m) were subjected to quasi-static and reversed-cyclic loading. The tests were set up to approximate pure shear loading, with three-panel CLT assemblies connected with STS. The resulting load-displacement and hysteretic curves were used to determine an equivalent energy elastic-plastic curve to estimate assembly capacity, yield load, yield displacement, ductility ratio, stiffness, and damping. Excellent structural performance in terms of capacity and stiffness was obtained while still providing the required ductility for the system to be used in seismic applications. The average static and cyclic yield loads were 6.0 kN/screw and 5.9 kN/screw, respectively. Average static and cyclic and ductility ratios were 7.7 and 4.1, respectively, allowing the connection to be classified as highly ductile under quasi-static loading and moderately ductile under reversed cyclic loading. The data obtained allow engineers to specify an innovative connection assembly with double inclination of fasteners for lateral load–resisting systems of CLT structures.
Three innovative massive wooden shear-wall systems (Cross-Laminated-Glued Wall, Cross-Laminated-Stapled Wall, Layered Wall with dovetail inserts) were tested and their structural behaviour under seismic action was assessed with numerical simulations. The wall specimens differ mainly in the method used to assemble the layers of timber boards composing them. Quasi-static cyclic loading tests were carried out and then reproduced with a non-linear numerical model calibrated on the test results to estimate the most appropriate behaviour factor for each system. Non-linear dynamic simulations of 15 artificially generated seismic shocks showed that these systems have good dissipative capacity when correctly designed and that they can be assigned to the medium ductility class of Eurocode 8. This work also shows the influence of deformations in wooden panels and base connectors on the behaviour factor and dissipative capacity of the system.
This article presents recent research on the seismic resistance of coupled post-tensioned timber walls for use in multi-story buildings. The walls are constructed from laminated veneer lumber (LVL), post-tensioned with unbonded vertical tendons, and coupled together with mild steel U-shaped flexural plates (UFPs) as energy dissipating elements. The timber wall design follows the same principles as used for post-tensioned precast concrete wall systems, using U-shaped plates to obtain a “hybrid” system, where energy is dissipated through yielding of the plates, while the vertical post-tensioning provides the restoring force. In this project, the same principles are applied to timber coupled walls. A series of quasi-static cyclic and pseudo-dynamic tests have been carried out to verify the applicability of the concept and the feasibility of the construction technology in timber buildings. The U-shaped plates showed stable energy dissipation characteristics and, in combination with the post-tensioning, desirable re-centering hysteretic behavior typically referred to as “flag-shape”. Because of the simplicity of these elements and the low cost of implementation, they have good prospects for practical application.
Previous tests carried out on post-tensioned timber walls focused on small scale (one-third) specimens with the main objective of evaluating the general response of the system. The main objective of the experimental program herein presented is the testing and estimating of the response of a series two-third scale post-tensioned walls, with alternative arrangements and combination of dissipaters and post-tensioning, focusing on the construction details adopted in real practice.
The paper first presents a brief discussion on the seismic demand evaluation based on the Displacement-Based Design approach. The construction detailing of the steel dissipater connections, post-tensioning anchorage and shear keys are then presented.
The main objectives of the experimental program were the investigation of the experimental behaviour of large scale post-tensioned timber walls, with particular focus on the system connection detailing and optimization of post-tensioning anchorage, fastening of the dissipation devices and shear keys. The program consisted of several quasi-static cyclic tests considering different steel dissipater configurations, different levels of post-tensioning initial stress and different dissipater options were considered: both internal and external mild steel tension-compression yield devices were used.
The experimental results showed the performance of post-tensioned timber wall systems which provide high level of dissipation while showing negligible residual displacements and negligible damage to the wall element.
The final part of the paper presents the experimental evaluation of the area-based hysteretic damping for the tested specimens and the results highlight the great influence of the connection detailing of the dissipaters.
Recent developments in novel engineered mass timber products and connection systems have created the possibility to design and construct tall timber-based buildings. This research presents the experiments conducted on the steel-wood connection as main energy dissipating part of a novel steel–timber hybrid system labelled Finding the Forest Through the Trees (FFTT). The performance was investigated using quasi-static monotonic and reversed cyclic tests. The influence of different steel beam profiles (wide flange I-sections and hollow rectangular sections), and the embedment approaches (partial and full embedment) was investigated. The test results demonstrated that appropriate connection layouts can lead to the desired failure mechanism while avoiding excessive crushing of the mass timber panels. The research can serve as a precursos for developing design guidelines for the FFTT systems as an option for tall wood-hybrid building systems in seismic regions.
This paper presents the analysis of the structural and thermal behaviour of an timber-concrete prefabricated composite wall system, the Concrete Glulam Framed Panel (CGFP) which is a panel made of a concrete slab and a structural glulam frame. The research analyses the structural performance with quasi-static in-plane tests, focused on the in-plane strength and stiffness of individual panels, and the thermal behaviour of the system with steady state tests using an hot box apparatus. The results validate the efficacy of proposed system ensuring the resistance and the dissipative structural behaviour through the hierarchy response characterized by the wood frame, the braced reinforced concrete panel of the singular module and by the rocking effects of global system.
In the US, codified seismic design procedure requires the use of seismic performance factors which are currently not available for CLT shear wall systems. The study presented herein focuses on the determination of seismic design factors for CLT shear walls in platform type construction using the FEMA P-695 process. Results from the study will be proposed for implementation in the seismic design codes in the US. The project approach is outlined and selected results of full-scale shear wall testing are presented and discussed. Archetype development, which is required as part of the FEMA P-695 process, is briefly explained with an example. Quasi-static cyclic tests were conducted on CLT shear walls to systematically investigate the effects of various parameters. The key aspect of these tests is that they systematically investigate each potential modelling attribute that is judged within the FEMA P-695 uncertainty quantification process. Boundary constraints and gravity loading were both found to have a beneficial effect on the wall performance, i.e. higher strength and deformation capacity. Higher aspect ratio panels (4:1) demonstrated lower stiffness and substantially larger deformation capacity compared to moderate aspect ratio panels (2:1). However, based on the test results there is likely a lower bound for aspect ratio (at 2:1) where it ceases to benefit deformation capacity of the wall. This is due to the transition of the wall behaviour from rocking to sliding. Phenomenological models were used in modelling CLT shear walls. Archetype selection and analysis procedure was demonstrated and nonlinear time history analysis was conducted using different wall configurations.