One of the challenges in mass timber construction is the design of efficient floor systems. This thesis focuses on studying composite T-beams, connecting Spruce-Pine-Fir Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) panels and Douglas-Fir Glued-Laminated timber (glulam) beams. In this study, three different types of self-tapping wood screws (ASSY SK, ASSY Ecofast, and ASSY VG), inserted at different angles, were investigated. Firstly, small-scale experimental tests were performed to investigate the strength and stiffness of the screws when submitted to lateral shear loads. It was found that the most promising fastener was the ASSY VG and that changing the angle of installation of the screws from 90° to the wood grain, to 45°, increased the strength and the stiffness of the studied connection. Secondly, full-scale composite beams experimental tests were completed to validate mechanistic-based and computational methods used to predict the effective bending stiffness of the composite T-beam. A degree of composite action achieved for the experimental T-beams was calculated through the studied methods. It was found that the studied T-beam achieved a moderately high percentage of composite action. Moreover, the methods were compared in terms of prediction accuracy, computational difficulty, required number of parameters, and versatility. Finally, parametric analyses were completed to gain insight into the structural performance of the composite beam when varying the number of CLT plies, the width of the CLT panel and of the glulam beams, as well as the length of the T-beam. Results indicate, conservatively, that the proposed connection, with a 3-ply CLT panel and a 130x190mm glulam beam, can be used to span 6m, maintaining a flange width of 2.8m. The results also suggest that with a 5-ply CLT panel and a 365x190mm glulam beam, it is possible to manufacture a 10m long T-beam that spans 3m laterally and supports live loads compatible with office use and occupancy.
The application of cross-laminated timber (CLT) as floor panels is limited by excessive deflection and vibration. A composite system combining CLT and ultra high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) was developed to extend span limits. Push-off tests were conducted on different connectors, and a glued-in rod connector was chosen and further refined for the proposed system. Static bending tests and free vibration tests were conducted on bare CLT panels and two composite specimens. By comparing the results, it is concluded that the proposed system considerably extend the span limits of CLT panels.
Society of Wood Science and Technology International Convention
The application of deconstructable connectors in timber-concrete composite (TCC) floors enables the possibility of disassembly and reuse of timber materials at the end of building’s life. This paper introduces the initial concept of a deconstructable TCC connector comprised of a self-tapping screw embedded in a plug made of rigid polyvinyl chloride and a level adjuster made of silicone rubber. This connection system is versatile and can be applied for prefabrication and in-situ concrete casting of TCC floors in both wet-dry and dry-dry systems. The paper presents the results of preliminary tests on the shear performance of four different configurations of the connector system in T-section glulam-concrete composites. The shear performance is compared to that of a permanent connector made with the same type of self-tapping screw. The failure modes observed are also analyzed to provide technical information for further optimization of the connector in the future.
In this paper a novel and efficient structural system, that comprises steel beams and prefabricated timber slabs is developed and tested under short-term service and ultimate limit state loading conditions. In the proposed steeltimber composite (STC) system, bolt and coach screws are employed to transfer shear between steel beam and prefabricated timber slab and provide a composite connection. A series of experimental push-out tests were carried out on cross-banded LVL-Steel and CLT-Steel hybrid specimens to investigate the behaviour of different connection types. Furthermore, the load-deflection response of full-scale STC beams was captured by conducting 4-point bending tests on STC beams. The failure modes of connections and composite beams have been monitored and reported. The results illustrate advantages of using timber panels in conjunction with steel girders in terms of increasing strength and stiffness of composite beams
The benefits of using shear connectors to join wood beams to a concrete slab in a composite floor or deck system are many. Studies throughout the world have demonstrated significantly improved strength, stiffness, and ductility properties from such connection systems as well as citing practical building advantages such as durability, sound insulation, and fire resistance. In this study, one relatively new shear connector system that originated in Germany has been experimentally investigated for use with U.S. manufactured products. The connector system consists of a continuous steel mesh of which one half is glued into a southern pine Parallam® Parallel Strand Lumber beam and the other half embedded into a concrete slab to provide minimal interlayer slip. A variety of commercial epoxies were tested for shear strength and stiffness in standard shear or “push out” tests. The various epoxies resulted in a variety of shear constitutive behaviors; however, for two glue types,shear failure occurred in the steel connector resulting in relatively high initial stiffness and ductility as well as good repeatability. Slip moduli and ultimate strength values are presented and discussed. Full-scale bending tests, using the best performing adhesive as determined from the shear tests, were also conducted. Results indicate consistent, near-full composite action system behavior
International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering Symposium
September 19-21, 2018, Nantes, France
Contemporary structures are required to be earthquake-resistant, sustainable and flexible to changing occupancy needs over time. Hybrid wood-based construction systems are promising solutions for modern buildings and research for cost-efficient systems is underway to compete with more traditional and widely spread non-wood building systems. This paper presents an innovative modular and prefabricated wood-based hybrid construction technology. It is a dry solution obtained by fastening on-site steel frames and composite CLT-steel members using only bolts and screws. The main results obtained from a comprehensive experimental programme with focus on the in-plane and out-of-plane behaviour of floors are reviewed. The influence of connections on the response of floors is discussed. The findings are of practical relevance with direct impacts on other applications.
Five full-scale timber floors were tested in order to analyse the in-plane behaviour of these structural systems. The main objective was an assessment of the effectiveness of in-plane strengthening using cross-laminated timber (CLT). To that end, one unstrengthened specimen (original), one specimen strengthened with a second layer of floorboards, two specimens strengthened with three CLT panels, and one specimen strengthened with two CLT panels, were tested. A numerical analysis was then performed in order to analyse the composite behaviour of the timber floors in more detail. Due to its importance as regards composite behaviour, the first phase of the experimental programme was composed of push out tests on specimens representing the shear connection between the timber beams and the CLT pan CLT panels. This paper describes els. This paper describes the tests performed and the numerical modelling applied the tests performed and the numerical modelling applied to evaluate the composite behaviour of the strengthened timber floors. The use of CLT panels is revealed to be an effective way to increase the in-plane stiffness of timber floors, through which the behaviour of the composite structure can be significantly changed, depending on the connection applied, or modified as required.
For the design of timber-concrete composite (TCC) elements with notches, the slip modulus Kser represents an important property of the connection. In this paper available research results were gathered and further experimental tests were carried out in order to define the slip modulus of a notched connection. Therefore experimental push-out and beam tests have been conducted on timber-concrete composite specimens. Test series included specimens with and without screws in the notches. Also the failure mode of the connection as well as the application of the slipmodulus (obtained from the push-out tests) in TCC elements have been investigated.
Sustainability issues are driving the civil construction industry to adopt and study more environmentally friendly technologies as an alternative to traditional masonry/concrete construction. In this context, plantation wood especially stands out as a constituent of the cross-laminated timber (CLT) system, laminated wood glued in perpendicular layers forming a solid-wood structural panel. CLT panels are commonly connected by screws or nails, and several authors have investigated the behavior of these connections. Glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) dowels have been used to connect wooden structures, and have presented excellent performance results; however, they have not yet been tested in CLT. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP)-doweled connections between CLT panels. The specimens were submitted to monotonic shear loading, following the test protocol described in EN 26891-1991. Two configurations of adjacent five-layer panels were tested: flat-butt connections with 45° dowels (x, y, and z axes), and half-lap connections with 90° dowels. The results were evaluated according to the mechanical connection properties of strength, stiffness, and ductility ratio. The results showed higher stiffness for butt-end connections. In terms of strength, the half-lap connections were stronger than the butt-end connections.
The use of lightweight concrete in timber-concrete composite structures for the purposes of reconstruction, upgrading, and strengthening has increasing application potential. The correct combination of mechanical properties of both materials can preserve the beneficial aspects of timber in tension and concrete in compression, while reducing the weight of the structure. This paper experimentally evaluated the slip modulus of screw connectors as one of the key issues in the structural design of these types of composite structures. The results of four groups of push-out tests, which were performed on composite samples, are presented. All of the samples had identical cross sections, but each group was made with a different lightweight concrete density class according to Eurocode 2. The obtained results were compared with the values recommended by Eurocode 5. The analysis showed that the code recommendations yielded slip modulus values that were considerably higher than the ones obtained experimentally, which could lead to unsafe timber and lightweight concrete structures.