The goal of this study was to update life-cycle assessment (LCA) data associated with laminated veneer lumber (LVL) production in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States from cradle-to-gate mill output. The authors collected primary mill data from LVL production facilities per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) Research Guidelines. Comparative assertions were not a goal of this study.
The goal of the present study was to develop life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) data associated with gate-to-gate laminated veneer lumber (LVL) production in the southeast (SE) region of the U.S. with the ultimate aim of constructing an updated cradle-to-gate mill output life-cycle assessment (LCA). The authors collected primary (survey) mill data from LVL production facilities per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) Research Guidelines. Comparative assertions were not a goal of the present study.
This study evaluated the effects on forest resources and forest product markets of three contrasting mass timber demand scenarios (Conservative, Optimistic, and Extreme), up to 2060, in twelve selected countries in Asia, Europe, North America, and South America. Analyses were carried out by utilizing the FOrest Resource Outlook Model, a partial market equilibrium model of the global forest sector. The findings suggest increases in global softwood lumber production of 8, 23, and 53 million m3 per year by 2060, under the Conservative, Optimistic, and Extreme scenarios, respectively, leading to world price increases of 2%, 7%, and 23%, respectively. This projected price increase is relative to the projected price in the reference scenario, altering prices, production, consumption, trade of forest products, timber harvest, forest growth, and forest stock in individual countries. An increase in softwood lumber prices due to increased mass timber demand would lead to the reduced consumption of softwood lumber for traditional end-use (e.g., light-frame construction), suggesting a likely strong market competition for softwood lumber between the mass timber and traditional construction industries. In contrast, the projected effect on global forest stock was relatively small based on the relatively fast projected biomass growth in stands assumed to be regenerated after harvest.
European Conference on Cross Laminated Timber (CLT)
May 21-22, 2013, Graz, Austria
Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) is an innovative wood product, which can be used for almost all superstructure elements. It is generally produced from kiln dried, fast growing timber. Currently the majority of CLT used within the UK construction industry is manufactured in central mainland Europe and imported to the UK. The goal of this study is to establish the conditions required for implementing a CLT production and construction capability using available UK timber stock, thus offering a low carbon alternative to multi-story steel and concrete commercial constructions.
This paper reports the investigation on the one-dimensional charring rate of glued laminated timber manufactured from Malaysian Tropical Hardwood namely Malagangai (density, 800 kg/m 3 ). The fire test was conducted at SP Wood Technology in Stockholm in accordance with EN 13381-7:2014 for determination of charring rate. The reaction-to-fire tests for fire classifications in terms of flame spread, smoke production and burning droplets were investigated at University of Stuttgart, Germany in accordance with the procedures given in EN 13 501-1 : 2010. The results show that the charring rate of glulam Malagangai is 0.6 mm/min. The fire behaviour of the glulam is in Class C with medium smoke generation and very little burning droplets.
This paper presents a new approach to robotic fabrication in the building industry through the conceptualization, development and evaluation of a largescale, transportable and flexible robotic timber construction platform – named TIM. Novel solutions are necessary to make robotic fabrication technologies more accessible for timber construction companies. The developed robotic system is location independent and reconfigurable. It can be rapidly integrated into existing fabrication environments of typical carpentries on a per-project basis. This allows the exploitation of emerging synergies between conventional craft and specialized automation technologies and benefits both quality and productivity of the trade. We portrait how the platform enabled the effective robotic prefabrication of a complex segmented wood shell structure and discuss the fabrication system based on critical performance parameters. Further research is needed to disentangle the mutual dependencies of building-systems and respective automation technologies.
Project contact is Lech Muszynski, Oregon State University College of Forestry
This research is a continuation of a long-term effort of systematically monitoring developments in the global CLT industry launched by the PI in 2011 and since 2017 partially funded by an ARS/TDI grant.
Overall, including research conducted before ARS funding, this effort has involved two surveys launched in 2016 and in 2019; 46 targeted site tours of CLT manufacturing lines located in the USA, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, China, France, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Estonia; and an extensive review of trade journals tracking the development of the CLT industry. While adhesive-bonded CLT remains the main focus of the research, beginning with 2017 the survey also included two related mass timber panel (MTP) products classified as glueless CLT (massive cross-laminated timber panels bonded with nails and hardwood dowels), MTP hardware manufacturers, construction sites and research laboratories concerned with MTP related research.
To-date we have created and populated a unique database covering more than 116 manufacturing plants (including more than 60 CLT lines) across the globe. The database includes information on MTP manufacturers within and outside the MTP industry cluster, including: changes in production capacity and dominant technologies in global MTP production; key success factors and constraints determining the emergence and growth of production; differences in perception of opportunities, risks, challenges and constraints; related business models, strategies, contextual policies, and; the role of innovation systems.
Integrated packing and sequence-optimization problems appear in many industrial applications. As an example of this type of problem, we consider the production of glued laminated timber (glulam) in sawmills: Wood beams must be packed into a sequence of pressing steps subject to packing constraints of the press and subject to sequencing constraints. In this paper, we present a three-stage approach for solving this hard optimization problem: Firstly, we identify alternative packings for small parts of an instance. Secondly, we choose an optimal subset of these packings by solving a set cover problem. Finally, we apply a sequencing algorithm in order to find an optimal order of the selected subsequences. For every level of the hierarchy, we present tailored algorithms, analyze their performance and illustrate the efficiency of the overall approach by a comprehensive numerical study.
The state of the art requires a closed waiting time of about one hour for the beech glulam production. This has a negative influence on the production costs. Micro structured surfaces showed good performance in combination with coatings. The authors have performed tension-shear and delaminating test in order to investigate the influence of micro structured surfaces on the bond quality of hardwoods. The results are very promising and show clearly improved delaminating resistance for all tested adhesive. No closed waiting time was needed to achieve satisfying results using MUF in combination with beech.
Is a wood processing company with about 1,000 employees andplants in Austria, Slovenia and Russia. In the forest around their Russian sawmill “HasslacherLes” the wood species birch (Betula pendula) is growing in large quantities and cut-able qualities. The company has also very modern equipment for the production of glued laminated and cross laminated timber. Consequently the idea was born to develop a project to produce load-carrying members to check the possibility of production of glued laminated timber and cross laminated timber without large modification of the existing production process. The goal of the project was to set up a complete profile of the mechanical properties needed for the design according to EN 1995-1-1. In addition by the means of a pilot project (detached house) erected with birch Cross Laminated Timber the effectiveness of this product for structural purposes with slender wooden components could be shown. The second pilot project was an industrial hall made of Glued Laminated Timber with birch.