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In-Plane Strength and Stiffness of Cross-Laminated Timber Shear Walls

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2117
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Design and Systems
Connections
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Walls
Floors

A Novel LVL- Based Internal Reinforcement for Holes in Glulam Beams

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1908
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Beams
Author
Tapia, Cristóbal
Aicher, Simon
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Beams
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Hybrid Build Up
Parametric Study
Finite Element Method (FEM)
Reinforcement
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 20-23,2018. Seoul, Republic of Korea
Summary
A newly developed reinforcement system for glulam, actually representing a new generic wood com-pund, is presented. The composite consists on a hybrid cross-section, composed of intercalated layers of GLT and LVL, glued together along the width-direction of the beam. The specific build-up improves in first instance the mechanical properties of the glulam in the direction perpendicular to the grain significantly. Hence, the composite is especially well suited for the reinforcement of arrays of large holes in wide cross-sections. Secondly, the layers were tailored in such a manner, that the bending load capacity equalls that of the gross-cross-section. A parametric study was performed by means of the finite element method, to study the redistribution of stresses perpendicular to the main axis of the beam in the region of stress concentrations at one of the hole corners. Specifically, the load sharing of the vertical tensile force F_t,90 described in the German National Annex to EC5 was analyzed, and an analytical relationship depending on the thickness, elastic modulus and moment-to-shear-force ratio was developed.
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A numerical and experimental investigation of non-linear deformation behaviours in light-frame timber walls

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3022
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Application
Walls
Shear Walls
Author
Kuai, Le
Ormarsson, Sigurdur
Vessby, Johan
Maharjan, Rajan
Organization
Linnaeus University
Karlstad University
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Application
Walls
Shear Walls
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Timber Structures
Internal Force Distribution
Light-frame Shear Walls
Parametric Study
Openings
Research Status
Complete
Series
Engineering Structures
Summary
In recent decades, there is a trend in Scandinavian countries to build multi-storey residential houses using prefabricated timber modules. It is a highly efficient construction process with less environmental impact and less material waste. A significant building element in the timber modules is the light-frame timber wall, which has to be carefully analysed and optimized in this process. This paper presents a new parametric Finite Element (FE) model that can simulate both in-plane and out-of-plane deformations in the light-frame walls. A new and flexible (Eurocode based) approach to define the properties of the mechanical connections is introduced. A numerical model is presented through simulations of several walls that were verified with full-scale experiments. The results indicate that the numerical model could achieve fairly reasonable accuracy with the new approach. Furthermore, several parametric studies are presented and discussed from global and local points of view, to investigate the effects of certain parameters that are not considered in the design method according to Eurocode 5.
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A Numerical Study of the Stiffness and Strength of Cross-Laminated Timber Wall-to-Floor Connections under Compression Perpendicular to the Grain

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2839
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Floors
Author
Akter, Shaheda
Schweigler, Michael
Serrano, Erik
Bader, Thomas
Organization
Linnaeus University
Lund University
Editor
Brandner, Reinhard
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Floors
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Parametric Study
Perpendicular to the Grain
Elasto-Plastic Behaviour
Numerical Modeling
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
The use of cross-laminated timber (CLT) in multi-story buildings is increasing due to the potential of wood to reduce green house gas emissions and the high load-bearing capacity of CLT. Compression perpendicular to the grain (CPG) in CLT is an important design aspect, especially in multi-storied platform-type CLT buildings, where CPG stress develops in CLT floors due to loads from the roof or from upper floors. Here, CPG of CLT wall-to-floor connections are studied by means of finite element modeling with elasto-plastic material behavior based on a previously validated Quadratic multi-surface (QMS) failure criterion. Model predictions were first compared with experiments on CLT connections, before the model was used in a parameter study, to investigate the influence of wall and floor thicknesses, the annual ring pattern of the boards and the number of layers in the CLT elements. The finite element model agreed well with experimental findings. Connection stiffness was overestimated, while the strength was only slightly underestimated. The parameter study revealed that the wall thickness effect on the stiffness and strength of the connection was strongest for the practically most relevant wall thicknesses between 80 and about 160 mm. It also showed that an increasing floor thickness leads to higher stiffness and strength, due to the load dispersion effect. The increase was found to be stronger for smaller wall thicknesses. The influence of the annual ring orientation, or the pith location, was assessed as well and showed that boards cut closer to the pith yielded lower stiffness and strength. The findings of the parameter study were fitted with regression equations. Finally, a dimensionless ratio of the wall-to-floor thickness was used for deriving regression equations for stiffness and strength, as well as for load and stiffness increase factors, which could be used for the engineering design of CLT connections.
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