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11 records – page 1 of 2.

Artificial Neural Network for Assessment of Energy Consumption and Cost for Cross Laminated Timber Office Building in Severe Cold Regions

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1206
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Energy Performance
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Dong, Qi
Xing, Kai
Zhang, Hongrui
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Energy Performance
Cost
Keywords
Energy Consumption
Office Buildings
Severe Cold Regions
Artificial Neural Network
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
Summary
This paper aims to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the energy consumption and cost of cross laminated timber (CLT) office buildings in severe cold regions during the early stage of architectural design. Eleven variables were selected as input variables including building form and construction variables, and the values of input variables were determined by local building standards and surveys. ANNs were trained by the simulation data and Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) method was used to select training datasets for the ANN training. The best ANN was obtained by analyzing the output variables and the number of hidden layer neurons. The results showed that the ANN with multiple outputs presented better prediction performance than the ANN with single output. Moreover, the number of hidden layer neurons in ANN should be greater than five and preferably 10, and the best mean square error (MSE) value was 1.957 × 103. In addition, it was found that the time of predicting building energy consumption and cost by ANN was 80% shorter than that of traditional building energy consumption simulation and cost calculation method
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Assessment of Energy Saving Potential by Replacing Conventional Materials by Cross Laminated Timber (CLT)—A Case Study of Office Buildings in China

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2010
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Energy Performance
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Dong, Yu
Cui, Xue
Yin, Xunzhi
Chen, Yang
Guo, Haibo
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2019
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Energy Performance
Keywords
China
Energy Consumption
Office Buildings
Research Status
Complete
Series
Applied Sciences
Summary
This research evaluates the operational heating and cooling energy consumption of cross-laminated timber (CLT) office buildings in China. The evaluations involve a comparison of the energy consumption of a reference RC structure and CLT system office buildings. Computational simulation results are based on IES-VE 2019 and show that the estimated heating energy saving ratio of CLT buildings in Harbin, Beijing, Shanghai, and Kunming to the reference structure are 11.97%, 22.11%, 30.94%, and 23.30% respectively. However, the CLT buildings consume more energy for cooling in the summer. The results of the research show significantly higher heating energy reductions for CLT buildings in the Cold Region and Severe Cold Regions of China. Thus, the application of the CLT system is better suited to northern China than southern China. The results of the research can be used in further assessment of the use of CLT systems in different climatic regions in China.
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Case Studies of Risk-To-Life Due to Fire in Mid- and High-Rise, Combustible and Non-Combustible Buildings Using CUrisk

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue279
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Zhang, Xia
Mehaffey, Jim
Hadjisophocleous, George
Organization
Carleton University
Year of Publication
2015
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
High-Rise
Mid-Rise
Residential
Tall Wood
Office Buildings
CUrisk
Risk-to-Life
Research Status
Complete
Summary
In this project, CUrisk was employed to assess and compare the risk-to-life due to fire in mid-rise and high-rise residential and office buildings of wood construction and of non-combustible construction and to demonstrate how fire protection measures can be tuned to ensure a mid-rise or high-rise building of wood construction is as safe as a similar building of non-combustible construction. The computation results show that [...] Comparisons between the numbers of deaths and injuries of scenarios with and without suitable fire protection systems show the importance of fire protection systems in reducing life risk from fire in all buildings. Sustaining the reliability of fire protection systems through proper design, installation, inspection, and maintenance is important to achieve the life safety objectives.
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A Comparative Cradle-To-Gate Life Cycle Assessment of Mid-Rise Office Building Construction Alternatives: Laminated Timber or Reinforced Concrete

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue52
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Robertson, Adam
Lam, Frank
Cole, Raymond
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2012
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Concrete
Embodied Carbon
Life-Cycle Assessment
Mid-Rise
National Building Code of Canada
NBCC
North America
Office Buildings
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
The objective of this project was to quantify and compare the environmental impacts associated with alternative designs for a typical North American mid-rise office building. Two scenarios were considered; a traditional cast-in-place, reinforced concrete frame and a laminated timber hybrid design, which utilized engineered wood products (cross-laminated timber (CLT) and glulam). The boundary of the quantitative analysis was cradle-to-construction site gate and encompassed the structural support system and the building enclosure. Floor plans, elevations, material quantities, and structural loads associated with a five-storey concrete-framed building design were obtained from issued-for-construction drawings. A functionally equivalent, laminated timber hybrid design was conceived, based on Canadian Building Code requirements. Design values for locally produced CLT panels were established from in-house material testing. Primary data collected from a pilot-scale manufacturing facility was used to develop the life cycle inventory for CLT, whereas secondary sources were referenced for other construction materials. The TRACI characterization methodology was employed to translate inventory flows into impact indicators. The results indicated that the laminated timber building design offered a lower environmental impact in 10 of 11 assessment categories. The cradle-to-gate process energy was found to be nearly identical in both design scenarios (3.5 GJ/m2), whereas the cumulative embodied energy (feedstock plus process) of construction materials was estimated to be 8.2 and 4.6 GJ/m2 for the timber and concrete designs, respectively; which indicated an increased availability of readily accessible potential energy stored within the building materials of the timber alternative.
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Comparison of Environmental Performance of a Five-Storey Building Built with Cross-Laminated Timber and Concrete

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue65
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Chen, Yue
Organization
University of British Columbia
Year of Publication
2012
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Canada
Concrete
Energy Consumption
Environmental
Mid-Rise
North America
Office Buildings
Passive Buildings
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Cross Laminated Timber (CLT), which is made by laminating dimension lumber at right angles, is an innovative high-performance building material that offers many positive attributes including renewability, high structural stability, storage of carbon during the building life, good fire resistance, possibility of material recycling and reuse. It is conceptually a sustainable and cost effective structural timber solution that can compete with concrete in non-residential and multi-family mid-rise building market. Therefore, there is a need to understand and quantify the environmental attribute of this building system in the context of North American resources, manufacturing technology, energy constraints, building types, and construction practice. This study is to compare energy consumption of two building designs using different materials, i.e. CLT and concrete.
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Developing a Large Span Timber-based Composite Floor System for Highrise Office Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2549
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Hybrid Building Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Large Span
Prefabrication
High-Rise
Office Buildings
Tall Timber Buildings
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Project contact is Frank Lam at the University of British Columbia
Summary
The objective of this project is to develop a large span timber-based composite floor system for the construction of highrise office buildings. This prefabricated floor system could span over 10 m under regular office occupation load, and its use will expedite the construction significantly, converting to multi-million financial savings in a typical 40+ story project, besides the impact on reducing carbon footprint and enhancing living experience.
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Evaluation of Timber-Concrete Floor Performance under Occupant-Induced Vibrations using Continuous Monitoring

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue131
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Serviceability
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Floors
Author
Omenzetter, Piotr
Kohli, Varun
Desgeorges, Yohann
Publisher
Scientific.net
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Journal Article
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Floors
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Serviceability
Keywords
Damping
Frequencies
Lightweight
Long Span
Office Buildings
Research Status
Complete
Series
Key Engineering Materials
Summary
This paper describes the design of a system to monitor floor vibrations in an office building and an analysis of several months worth of collected data. Floors of modern office buildings are prone to occupant-induced vibrations. The contributing factors include long spans, slender and flexible designs, use of lightweight materials and low damping. As a result, resonant frequencies often fall in the range easily excited by normal footfall loading, creating potential serviceability problems due to undesirable levels of vibrations. This study investigates in-situ performance of a non-composite timber-concrete floor located in a recently constructed innovative multi-storey office building. The floor monitoring system consists of several displacement transducers to measure long-term deformations due to timber and concrete creep and three accelerometers to measure responses to walking forces, the latter being the focus of this paper. Floor response is typically complex and multimodal and the optimal accelerometer locations were decided with the help of the effective independence-driving point residue (EfI-DPR) technique. A novel approach to the EfI-DPR method proposed here uses a combinatorial search algorithm that increases the chances of obtaining the globally optimal solution. Several months worth of data collected by the monitoring system were analyzed using available industry guidelines, including ISO2631-1:1997(E), ISO10137:2007(E) and SCI Publication P354. This enabled the evaluation of the floor performance under real operating conditions.
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Field Testing on Innovative Timber Structures

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue671
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Floors
Frames
Author
Leyder, Claude
Wanninger, Flavio
Frangi, Andrea
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Conference Paper
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Floors
Frames
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Beech
Post-Tensioned
Office Buildings
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 10-14, 2014, Quebec City, Canada
Summary
In timber research, a main objective is the development and promotion of innovative and efficient timber structures. Therefore a pilot building, named ETH House of Natural Resources, has been designed, which uses two innovative structural systems, a post-tensioned timber frame and a composite beech LVL concrete floor. The building will be used as an office building for the Laboratory of Hydraulics, Hydrology and Glaciology from ETH Zürich and will serve as a showcase building of a sustainable and reliable timber construction for students and researchers, among others.
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Force Based Design Guideline for Timber-Steel Hybrid Structures: Steel Moment Resisting Frames with CLT Infill Walls

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue83
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Tesfamariam, Solomon
Stiemer, Siegfried
Bezabeh, Matiyas
Goertz, Caleb
Popovski, Marjan
Goda, Katsuichiro
Organization
University of British Columbia
Year of Publication
2015
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Keywords
Overstrength
Ductility
National Building Code of Canada
Timber-Steel Hybrid
Office Buildings
Residential Buildings
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Provincial code changes have been made to allow construction of light wood-frame buildings up to 6 storeys in order to satisfy the urban housing demand in western Canadian cities. It started in 2009 when the BC Building Code was amended to increase the height limit for wood-frame structures from four to six. Recently, provinces of Quebec, Ontario and Alberta followed suit. While wood-frame construction is limited to six storeys, some innovative wood-hybrid systems can go to greater heights. In this report, a feasibility study of timber-based hybrid buildings is described as carried out by The University of British Columbia (UBC) in collaboration with FPInnovations. This project, funded through BC Forestry Innovation Investment's (FII) Wood First Program, had an objective to develop design guidelines for a new steel-timber hybrid structural system that can be used as part of the next generation "steel-timber hybrid structures" that is limited in scope to 20 storey office or residential buildings. ...
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(Mass) Timber: Structurally Optimized Timber Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1433
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Strobel, Kristen
Organization
University of Washington
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Office Buildings
Low-Rise
Mid-Rise
High-Rise
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This thesis explores the challenges and potential of mass timber as a paradigm shifting technology for the building industry through the application of parametric modeling technology to the design of office buildings. By testing building configurations in three zoning envelopes—low-rise suburban, mid-rise urban, and high-rise urban—optimization strategies for mass timber office buildings were developed. Facades and floor slabs were identified as the primary contributors to building cost and environmental impacts and therefore the easiest targets for optimization. The primary method for optimizing facades is replacing curtain wall with solid cross laminated timber (CLT) walls, this method runs counter to developer driven standards of fully glazed facades making short term adoption of this strategy unlikely without major shifts in building developer and owner expectations. Slabs and floor systems can be optimized through the implementation of novel solutions that take advantage of composite action between glulam, CLT, and concrete elements. Additionally, zoning height incentives could be used to make timber construction competitive with steel and concrete systems despite increased floor-to-floor heights. Finally, future research opportunities and needs, both architectural and technical, are identified.
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11 records – page 1 of 2.