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Prediction of bending performance for a separable CLT-concrete composite slab connected by notch connectors

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2931
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Floors
Author
Pang, Sung-Jun
Ahn, Kyung-Sun
Jeong, Seok-man
Lee, Gun-Cheol
Kim, Hyeon Soo
Oh, Jung-Kwon
Organization
Seoul National University
Korea National University of Transportation
Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Floors
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Composite Slab
Bending Strength
Notched Connection
Round Notch
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Building Engineering
Summary
In this study, the bending performance of a separable cross-laminated timber (CLT)–concrete composite slab for reducing environmental impact was investigated. The slab has consisted of CLT and eco–concrete, and round-notch shape shear connectors resist the shear force between the CLT and eco-concrete. The eco–concrete was composed of a high-sulfated calcium silicate (HSCS) cement, which ensures low energy consumption in the production process. The bending stiffness and load-carrying capacities of the slab were theoretically predicted based on the shear properties of the notch connectors and validated with an experimental test. The shear properties of two types of notch shear connectors (Ø100 mm and Ø200 mm) were measured by planar shear tests. As a result, the stochastically predicted bending stiffness of the slab (with Ø100 mm shear connector) was 0.364 × 1012 N mm2, which was almost similar to test data. The load-carrying capacities of the slab were governed by the shear failure of the notch connectors, and the lower fifth percentile point estimate (5% PE) was 21.9 kN, which was 7.9% higher than the prediction (20.2 kN). In a parameter study, the effect of notch diameter for the CLT-concrete slab span was analyzed depending on the applied loads, and the maximum spans of the slab with Ø100 mm notch or Ø200 mm notch were not significantly different.
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Structural Performance of Mass Timber Panel-Concrete Composite Floors with Notched Connections

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3122
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Floors
Author
Zhang, Lei
Organization
University of Alberta
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Thesis
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Floors
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Notched Connection
Discrete Bond Composite Beam Model
Mass Timber Panel
Connection Stiffness
Effective Bending Stiffness
Load-Carrying Capacity
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This thesis focuses on the structural performance of mass timber panel-concrete composite floors with notches. Mass timber panels (MTPs) such as cross-laminated timber, glue-laminated timber, and nail-laminated timber, are emerging construction materials in the building industry due to their high strength, great dimensional stability, and prefabrication. The combination of MTPs and concrete in the floor system offers many structural, economic, and ecological benefits. The structural performance of MTP-concrete composite floors is governed by the shear connection system between timber and concrete. The notched connections made by cutting grooves on timber and filling them with concrete are considered as a structurally efficient and cost-saving connecting solution for resisting shear forces and restricting relative slips between timber and concrete. However, the notched connection design in the composite floors is not standardized and the existing design guidelines are inadequate for MTP-concrete composite floors. To study the structural performance of notched connections and notch-connected composite floors, this thesis presented experimental, numerical, and analytical investigations. Push-out tests were conducted on the notched connections first, and then bending tests and vibration tests were conducted on full-scale composite floors. Finite element models were built for the notched connections to derive the connection shear stiffness. Finally, analytical solutions were developed to predict the internal actions of the composite floors under external loads. This study shows that the structural performance of notched connections is affected by the geometry of the connections and material properties of timber and concrete. The notch-connected MTP-concrete composite floors showed high bending stiffness but were not fully composite. The floors with shallow notches tended to fail in a ductile manner but had lower bending stiffness than floors with deep notches. The composite floors with deep notches, however, often fail abruptly in the concrete notches. By reinforcing the notched connections with steel fasteners, the composite floor can achieve high bending stiffness, high load-carrying capacity, and controlled failure pattern. The proper number and locations of notched connections in the composite floors can be determined from the proposed composite beam model. This thesis presented promising results in terms of the static and dynamic structural performance of notch-connected MTP-concrete composite floors. The test investigations added additional data to the current research body and prompted further evolvement of timber-concrete composite floors. The proposed empirical equations for estimating the connection stiffness and strength and composite beam model for predicting the serviceability and ultimate structural performance of composite floors provide useful tools to analyze the notch-connected MTP-concrete composite floors. The design recommendations for MTP-concrete composite floors with notches are provided in the thesis.
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Timber-concrete composite bridges: Three case studies

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3053
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
General Information
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Bridges and Spans
Author
Fragiacomo, Massimo
Gregori, Amedeo
Xue, Junqing
Demartino, Cristoforo
Toso, Matteo
Organization
University of L'Aquila
Fuzhou University
Nanjing Tech University
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Journal Article
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Bridges and Spans
Topic
General Information
Keywords
Connection System
Notched Connection
Case Study
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering
Summary
During the last years, timber-concrete composite (TCC) structures have been extensively used in Europe both in new and existing buildings. Generally speaking, a composite structure combines the advantages of both materials employed: the strength and stiffness of the concrete in compression and the tensile strength, lightweight, low embodied energy, and aesthetical appearance of the timber. The concrete slab provides protection of the timber beams from direct contact with water, which is crucial to ensure the durability of the timber beams, particularly when used for bridges. Different types of connectors can be used to provide force exchange between the concrete slab and the timber beam. The choice of a structurally effective yet cheap shear connection between the concrete topping and the timber joist is crucial to make the TCC structures a viable solution that can compete with reinforced concrete and steel structures. In this paper, the possibilities offered by TCC structures for short-span bridge decks are discussed. The technology of TCC structures and the general design rules are illustrated. Three case studies are reported, including a short-span bridge tested in Colorado, USA, with the timber layer being constructed from recycled utility poles and notch connection; a TCC bridge with glulam beams and triangular notches with epoxy-glued rebar connectors built in Portugal; and a TCC bridge with glulam beams and rectangular notches built in Germany. All the solutions were found to be structurally effective and aesthetically pleasing. They can all provide a sustainable option for short-span bridges.
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