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Cathedral Hill 2: Challenges in the Design of a Tall All-Timber Building

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1660
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Wind
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Below, Kevin
Sarti, Francesco
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Wind
Keywords
Pres-Lam
Dynamic Behaviour
Nonlinear Time History Analysis
Wind Loading
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 3633-3640
Summary
The paper presents the design and modelling of Cathedral Hill 2, a 15-storey timber building, planned for construction in Canada. The building is a 59-metre tall office-use construction with an all-timber structure where the lateral-load-resisting system consists of segmented Pres-Lam walls. The paper firstly presents the design philosophy, and the motivations for the use of the Pres-Lam system, which was mainly driven by serviceability limit-state wind loading. The final part of the paper shows the verification of the building’s dynamic behaviour using non-linear time-history analysis, showing that, although the lateral-load design is governed by serviceability limit-state wind deflections, earthquake demand must not be overlooked due to higher-mode amplifications.
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Controlled Rocking Cross-Laminated Timber Walls for Regions of Low-to-Moderate Seismicity

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1726
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Author
Kovacs, Mike
Wiebe, Lydell
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Keywords
North America
Canada
Nonlinear Time History Analysis
Prototype
Controlled Rocking Heavy Timber Walls
Drifts
Energy Dissipation
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 4671-4680
Summary
Controlled rocking heavy timber walls (CRHTW) were originally developed in New Zealand as a low-damage seismic force resisting system using Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL). This paper examines one way of adapting them to regions of low-to-moderate seismicity in North America, using Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) composed of...
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Direct Displacement Based Design of A Novel Hybrid Structure: Steel Moment-Resisting Frames with Cross Laminated Timber Infill Walls

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue15
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Author
Bezabeh, Matiyas
Tesfamariam, Solomon
Stiemer, Siegfried
Popovski, Marjan
Karacabeyli, Erol
Publisher
Earthquake Engineering Research Institute
Year of Publication
2015
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Keywords
Timber-Steel Hybrid
Panels
Nonlinear Time History Analysis
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Earthquake Spectra
Summary
This study proposes an iterative direct displacement based design method for a novel steel-timber hybrid structure. The hybrid structure incorporates Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) shear panels as an infill in steel moment resisting frames. The proposed design method is applied to design 3-, 6-, and 9-story hybrid buildings with three bays and CLT infilled middle bay. Nonlinear time history analysis, using twenty earthquake ground motion records, is carried out to validate the performance of the design method. The results indicate that the proposed method effectively controls the displacements due to seismic excitation of the hybrid structure.
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Energy Based Seismic Design of a Multi-Storey Hybrid Building: Timber-Steel Core Walls

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1271
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Seismic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Goertz, Caleb
Organization
University of British Columbia
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Timber-Steel Hybrid
Core Walls
Multi-Storey
High Seismic Regions
Steel Plates
Equivalent Static Force Procedure
Nonlinear Time History Analysis
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This thesis discusses a novel timber-steel core wall system for use in multi-storey buildings in high seismic regions. This hybrid system combines Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) panels with steel plates and connections to provide the required strength and ductility to core walled buildings. The system is first derived from first principles and validated in SAP2000. In order to assess the feasibility of the system it is implemented in the design of a 7-storey building based off an already built concrete benchmark building. The design is carried out following the equivalent static force procedure (ESFP) outlined by the National Building Code of Canada for Vancouver, BC. To evaluate the design bi-directional nonlinear time history analysis (NLTHA) is carried out on the building using a set of 10 ground motions based on a conditional mean spectrum. To improve the applicability of the hybrid system an energy based design methodology is proposed to design the timber-core walled building. The methodology is proposed as it does not rely on empirical formulas and force modification factors to determine the final design of the structure. NLTHA is carried out on the proposed methodology using 10 ground motions to evaluate the suitability of the method and the results are discussed and compared to the ESFP results.
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Higher Mode Effects in Multi-Storey Timber Buildings with Varying Diaphragm Flexibility

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1480
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Seismic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Frames
Walls
Author
Moroder, Daniel
Sarti, Francesco
Pampanin, Stefano
Smith, Tobias
Buchanan, Andrew
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
New Zealand
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Frames
Walls
Topic
Seismic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Nonlinear Time History Analysis
Higher Mode Effects
Stiffness
Diaphragms
Inter-Story Drift
Language
English
Conference
New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference
Research Status
Complete
Notes
April 27-29, 2017, Wellington, New Zealand
Summary
With the increasing acceptance and popularity of multi-storey timber buildings up to 10 storeys and beyond, the influence of higher mode effects and diaphragm stiffness cannot be overlooked in design. Due to the lower stiffness of timber lateral load resisting systems compared with traditional construction materials, the effect of higher modes on the global dynamic behaviour can be more critical. The presence of flexible timber diaphragms creates additional vibration modes, which have the potential to interact with each other, increasing the seismic demand on the whole structure. This paper uses a parametric non-linear time-history analysis on a series of timber frame and wall structures with varying diaphragm flexibility to study their dynamic behaviour and to determine diaphragm forces. The analyses results showed that although higher mode effects play a significant role in the structural dynamic response, this increased demand can be successfully predicted with methods available in literature. The parametric analyses showed that the diaphragm flexibility did not significantly increase the shear and moment demand; however, stiff wall structures with flexible diaphragms experienced large inter-storey drifts measured at diaphragm midspan compared with the drift of the wall alone. As expected, the diaphragm forces observed from the time-history analyses were significantly higher than the forces derived from an equivalent static analysis, leading to a potentially unsafe design. The paper presents a simplified approach for evaluating these amplified peak inertial diaphragm forces.
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Mitigating Torsional Irregularity using Cross Laminated Timber-Reinforced Concrete Hybrid System

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1264
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Yazdinezhad, Mahdi
Organization
University of British Columbia
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Keywords
Interstory Drifts
Reinforced Concrete
Linear Dynamic Analysis
Nonlinear Time History Analysis
Timber-Concrete Hybrid
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Seismic torsional responses in buildings is a result of eccentricity in mass and stiffness distribution. Torsional irregularity is one of the major causes of severe damage and collapse of structures during an earthquake. In this study, effect of torsion on the structures is reviewed, the definition of torsional irregularity and the characteristic of the structure that leads to this type of irregularity is elaborated. The evolution of the methods to consider the effect of torsion in the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) is reviewed and different methods to prevent torsional irregularity in the structures are discussed. Hybridization with Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) is suggested as a new method to rectify the effect of torsional irregularity for different performance levels. Accordingly, the definition of hybridization and hybrid structure seismic behavior, CLT material specifications and CLT seismic performance is discussed. In order to evaluate the effect of CLT hybridization on buildings with torsional irregularity, a four-storey reinforced concrete (RC) structure with torsional irregularity is considered for Vancouver seismicity condition. SAP2000 software is used to conduct Linear Dynamic Analysis (LDA) and Non-Linear Time History Analysis (NLTHA) using eight different ground motion scaled to Vancouver design spectra. The effect of the CLT wall panel as shear wall on the in plane seismic base shear and inter-storey drift is shown using the linear and non-linear dynamic analysis. The result from the analysis compared to the code static values. The literature of Performance Based Seismic Design (PBSD) is reviewed. PBSD is used to determine the performance level of the original and hybrid building. The inter-storey drifts criteria defined in FEMA 356 guidelines is used for the purpose of NLTHA.
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Pres-Lam in the US: The Seismic Design of the Peavy Building at Oregon State University

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1475
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Design and Systems
Mechanical Properties
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Sarti, Francesco
Smith, Tobias
Danzig, Ilana
Karsh, Eric
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
New Zealand
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Mechanical Properties
Seismic
Keywords
Pres-Lam
Load Carrying Capacity
US
Codes
Nonlinear Time History Analysis
Language
English
Conference
New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference
Research Status
Complete
Notes
April 27-29, 2017, Wellington, New Zealand
Summary
Pres-Lam is a post-tensioned rocking timber technology that has been developed over the last decade at the University of Canterbury. Pres-Lam overcomes a major challenge in timber construction, the development of a high strength moment connection, by tying mass timber elements together with high-strength steel post-tensioned tendons. In seismic areas, additional reinforcing can be added to the system increasing capacity as well as providing hysteretic damping. In 2010 Pres-Lam moved from laboratory testing to onsite implementation and has now been used in the construction of numerous building in New Zealand and around the world. This paper will present the lateral load design of the first Pres-Lam structure to be built in the United States: the Peavy Building at Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. Peavy is a three-storey mass timber building within the College of Forestry. A glulam and CLT gravity structure support the timber-concrete-composite floor, which is made up of CLT panels spanning between glulam beams. The lateral load carrying capacity is provided in the two orthogonal directions by Pres-Lam walls fabricated from Cross Laminated Timber (CLT). The paper will present an overview of the design philosophy and the main motivations for the use of the Pres-Lam system, discuss the requirements for U.S. code compliance, and review the nonlinear time-history analysis of the Pres-Lam structure.
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Seismic Design and Analysis of a 20-Storey Demonstration Wood Building

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue667
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Chen, Zhiyong
Chui, Ying Hei
Popovski, Marjan
Organization
Structures Congress
Publisher
American Society of Civil Engineers
Year of Publication
2015
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Conference Paper
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Keywords
Nonlinear time history analysis
Demonstration Building
Finite Element Model
Wood-Steel
Language
English
Conference
Structures Congress 2015
Research Status
Complete
Notes
April 23–25, 2015, Portland, Oregon, USA
Summary
This paper presents the seismic design and analysis of a 20-storey demonstration wood building, which was conducted as a part of the NEWBuildS tall wood building design project. A hybrid lateral load resisting system was chosen for the building. The system consisted of shear walls and a shear core, both made of structural composite lumber, connected with dowel-type connections and heavy-duty HSK (wood-steel-composite) system. The core and the shear walls were linked with horizontal steel beams at each floor. The wood-based panel-to-panel interface was designed to be the main energy dissipating mechanism of the system. A detailed finite element model of this building was developed and non-linear time history analyses were performed using 10 earthquake motions. The results showed that the seismic response of the 20-storey demonstration building met the various design criteria and the design details are appropriate.
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Seismic Design of Mixed CLT/Light-Frame Multi-Storey Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1666
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Seismic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Shear Walls
Author
Follesa, Maurizio
Fragiacomo, Massimo
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Shear Walls
Topic
Seismic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Multi-Storey
Q Factor
Eurocode 8
Nonlinear Time History Analysis
Dynamic Analysis
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 3750-3759
Summary
This paper presents a study on the seismic design of hybrid multi-storey wood buildings made of CLT and Light-Frame shear walls acting at the same level. Within the framework of the force-based method, the aim of this study is to propose a simple formulation in order to establish the value of the q-factor of the hybrid system which could be also implemented in seismic design codes such as Eurocode 8. This was achieved by analysing the results of nonlinear dynamic (time-history) analyses performed on a four storey case-study building with different combinations of CLT and Light-Frame shear walls.
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Seismic Performance Assessment of Steel Frame Infilled with Prefabricated Wood Shear Walls

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1313
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Seismic
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Shear Walls
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Li, Zheng
He, Minjuan
Wang, Xijun
Li, Minghao
Publisher
ScienceDirect
Year of Publication
2018
Country of Publication
Netherlands
Format
Journal Article
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Shear Walls
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Timber-Steel Hybrid
Seismic Performance
Multi-Story
Numerical Model
Damage
Stiffness
Nonlinear Time History Analysis
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Constructional Steel Research
Summary
Steel-timber hybrid structural systems offer a modern solution for building multi-story structures with more environmentally-friendly features. This paper presents a comprehensive seismic performance assessment for a kind of multi-story steel-timber hybrid structure. In such a hybrid structure, steel moment resisting frames are infilled with prefabricated light wood frame shear walls to serve as the lateral load resisting system (LLRS). In this paper, drift-based performance objectives under various seismic hazard levels were proposed based on experimental observations. Then, a numerical model of the hybrid structure considering damage accumulation and stiffness degradation was developed and verified by experimental results, and nonlinear time-history analyses were conducted to establish a database of seismic responses. The numerical results further serve as a technical basis for estimating the structure's fundamental period and evaluating post-yielding behavior and failure probabilities of the hybrid structure under various seismic hazard levels. A load sharing parameter was defined to describe the wall-frame lateral force distribution, and a formula was proposed and calibrated by the time-history analytical results to estimate the load sharing parameter. Moreover, earthquake-induced non-structural damage and residual deformation were also evaluated, showing that if designed properly, desirable seismic performance with acceptable repair effort can be obtained for the proposed steel-timber hybrid structural system.
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10 records – page 1 of 1.