The fire-resistance rating of a building element in an assembly has traditionally been assessed by subjecting a replicate of that assembly to the standard fire-resistance test ULC S101 in Canada, ASTM E119 in the USA and ISO 834 in most other countries. This paper presents two (2) calculation procedures for determining the fire-resistance of massive timber members in an attempt to develop a suitable calculation method that would provide accurate fire-resistance predictions when compared to test data and potentially be an alternative design method to conducting fire-resistance tests in compliance with ULC S101 and to the current Appendix D-2.11 of the National Building Code of Canada. Comparisons between the proposed methodologies and the experimental data for beams, columns and tension members show generally good agreement. Predicted failure times have been compared to experimental data that are publicly available.
Second European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology
August 25-29, 2014, Istanbul, Turkey
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) as a structural system has not been fully introduced in European or North American building codes. One of the most important issues for designers of CLT structures in earthquake prone regions when equivalent static design procedure is used, are the values for the force modification factors (R-factors) for this structural system. Consequently, the objective of this study was to derive suitable ductility-based force modification factors (Rd-factors) for seismic design of CLT buildings for the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC). For that purpose, the six-storey NEESWood Capstone wood-frame building was redesigned as a CLT structure and was used as a reference symmetrical structure for the analyses. The same floor plan was used to develop models for ten and fifteen storey buildings. Non-linear analytical models of the buildings designed with different Rd-factors were developed using the SAPWood computer program. CLT walls were modelled using the output from mechanics models developed in Matlab that were verified against CLT wall tests conducted at FPInnovations. Two design methodologies for determining the CLT wall design resistance (to include and exclude the influence of the hold-downs), were used. To study the effects of fastener behaviour on the R-factors, three different fasteners (16d nails, 4x70mm and 5x90mm screws) used to connect the CLT walls, were used in the analyses. Each of the 3-D building models was subjected to a series of 22 bi-axial input earthquake motions suggested in the FEMA P-695 procedure. Based on the results, the fragility curves were developed for the analysed buildings. Results showed that an Rd-factor of 2.0 is appropriate conservative estimate for the symmetrical CLT buildings studied, for the chosen level of seismic performance.
The advantages of using timber as the primary construction material in mid- and high-rise buildings are undisputed. Timber is sustainable, renewable, and has a very good strength-toweight ratio, which makes it an efficient building material. However, perceived shortcomings with respect to its ductility and system level behavior; along with lack of appropriate design guidance currently limits the use of timber in taller structures. Overcoming these obstacles will allow timber, and its wood product derivatives, to further expand into the multi-storey construction sector - most likely in hybrid-type structures.
The -Finding the Forest Through the Trees (FFTT) system is an innovative timber-steel hybrid system that may allow high-rise timber construction, even in highly seismic regions. The FFTT system utilizes engineered timber products to resist gravity and lateral loads with interconnecting steel members to provide the necessary ductility and predictability for seismic demands.
For a novel hybrid system, such as the FFTT, to gain recognition, experimental data must be gathered and supported by computational modeling and analysis in order to prove its component- and system-level performance. This thesis presents research utilizing nonlinear dynamic analysis of finite element (FE) models of the FFTT system, with properties calibrated to physical component tests, to capture the response under significant wind and seismic loads. From the results presented herein, it appears that the FFTT system can meet the design performance requirements required for seismic loading; however, due to its relatively low weight, may be susceptible to wind induced vibrations. All results are based on Vancouver, BC loading as specified by 2010 the National Building Code of Canada.
Project contact is Christian Dagenais at Université Laval (Canada)
The National Building Code of Canada (NBCC, NRC 2015) proposes equations to limit acceleration at the top of a tall building. These equations were developed and validated on several buildings designed between 1975 and 2000. The buildings built during these years are made of concrete or steel. It is therefore not certain that the NBCC equations can be applied for tall wooden buildings; wood being a lighter material than concrete and steel. In this project, the PhD candidate will study the impact of lateral load resistance systems and fastening systems used in timber framing on natural frequency and damping as well as its response due to wind loads. The influence of non-structural elements will also be studied. Two high-rise wooden buildings (Origine, 13 floors in Quebec City and Arbora, 8 floors in Montreal) are currently being instrumented to obtain information on the dynamic behavior of the structure. The measurements taken on these two buildings will be used, among other things, to validate theoretical models developed in the context of the doctorate.
The objective of this work is to generate fire resistance data for NLT assemblies to address significant gaps in technical knowledge. This research will support designers and builders in the use of mass timber assemblies in larger and taller buildings, as well as provide scientific justification for Authorities Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) to review and accept this construction method. The intent is to demonstrate that NLT construction can meet or exceed NBCC fire safety requirements for use in buildings of mass timber construction.
The data could be used towards the inclusion of an NLT fire resistance calculation methodology into Annex B of CSA 086 - Engineering Design for Wood, which currently addresses only glue-laminated timber (GLT), structural composite lumber (SCL) and cross-laminated timber (CLT).
Mass-timber has gained popularity in the construction of mid-rise buildings in the last decade. The innovation of constructing tall buildings with mass-timber can be seen in the student residence at Brock Commons built in 2016 at the University of British Columbia. It is the world’s tallest timber hybrid building with 18 stories and 53 meters’ height above the ground level. The building has 17 stories of mass-timber superstructure resting on a concrete podium with two concrete cores that act as a lateral force resisting system for earthquake and wind forces. The mass-timber superstructure of 17 stories took ten weeks whereas the concrete cores were built in fourteen weeks. There could have been a substantial reduction in the project timeline leading to cost savings, if mass-timber was used for the cores. The motivation for concrete cores was driven by the sole purpose of easier approval procedure. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate the possibility to design the Brock Commons building using mass-timber cores. First, the procedure for the approvals for tall timber buildings by understanding the code compliance for Brock Commons is discussed. Then, the actual building with concrete cores is modeled, with the model being calibrated with the results from the structural engineers of record. These concrete cores are then replaced by the same configuration using Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) cores to investigate the structural feasibility of Brock Commons with a mass-timber core. The results presented herein show that Brock Commons with CLT core having the same dimensions and configuration is unstable under seismic loading for Vancouver, BC, as specified by National Building of Canada 2015. However, when the configuration and thickness of CLT cores are changed, the structure can meet the seismic performance criteria as per the code.
A series of 3 cross-laminated timber (CLT) fire-resistance tests were conducted in accordance with ULC S101 standard as required in the National Building Code of Canada.
The first two tests were 3-ply wall assemblies which were 105 mm thick, one unprotected and the other protected with an intumescent coating, FLAMEBLOC® GS 200, on the exposed surface. The walls were loaded to 295 kN/m (20 250 lb./ft.). The unprotected assembly failed structurally after 32 minutes, and the protected assembly failed after 25 minutes.
The third test consisted of a 175 mm thick 5-ply CLT floor assembly which used wood I-joists, resilient channels, insulation and 15.9 mm ( in.) Type X gypsum board protection. A uniform load of 5.07 kPa (106 lb./ft²) was applied. The floor assembly failed after 138 min due to integrity.
Fire separations and fire-resistance ratings are often required together but they are not interchangeable terms, nor are they necessarily mutually inclusive. The National Building Code of Canada (NBC)1 provides the following definitions: A fire separation is defined as “a construction assembly that acts as a barrier against the spread of fire.” A fire-resistance rating is defined as “the time in minutes or hours that a material or assembly of materials will withstand the passage of flame and the transmission of heat when exposed to fire under specified conditions of test and performance criteria, or as determined by extension or interpretation of information derived therefrom as prescribed in [the NBC].” In many buildings, the structural members such as beams and columns, and structural or non-structural assemblies such as walls and floors, are required to exhibit some degree of resistance to fire in order to prevent the spread of fire and smoke, and/or to minimize the risk of collapse of the building in the event of a fire. However, fire separations are assemblies that may or may not be required to have a specific fire-resistance rating, while structural members such as beams and columns that require a fireresistance rating to maintain the structural stability of a building in the event of a fire are not fire separations because they do not “act as a barrier against the spread of fire.”
Provincial code changes have been made to allow construction of light wood-frame buildings up to 6 storeys in order to satisfy the urban housing demand in western Canadian cities. It started in 2009 when the BC Building Code was amended to increase the height limit for wood-frame structures from four to six. Recently, provinces of Quebec, Ontario and Alberta followed suit. While wood-frame construction is limited to six storeys, some innovative wood-hybrid systems can go to greater heights. In this report, a feasibility study of timber-based hybrid buildings is described as carried out by The University of British Columbia (UBC) in collaboration with FPInnovations. This project, funded through BC Forestry Innovation Investment's (FII) Wood First Program, had an objective to develop design guidelines for a new steel–timber hybrid structural system that can be used as a part of the next generation "steel-timber hybrid structures" that is limited in scope to 20 storey office or residential buildings.
The results show that the presence of CLT infill walls significantly affects the systems overstrength value, by sacrificing ductility. From this research, it can be concluded that an overstrength factor of Ro = 1.5 and a ductility factor of Rd = 4 showed acceptable and economical design of the proposed hybrid structure.
FPInnovations’involvement in various codes and standards technical committees aims to monitor, contributeor propose changes for improvement as well as to create new standards to include new wood products and systems based on knowledge developed from FPInnovations’ research activities. Involvement also allows FPInnovations to be aware of any potential changes to codes and standards and to recognize and address threats and opportunities for wood use. Codes and standards exist to protect consumers but are written to reflect the current practices and knowledge based on a consensus agreement by committee members. FPInnovations’ involvement in codes and standards committees helps to align the coming changes with new wood products. This InfoNote reports on FPInnovations’ contribution to the floor vibration-control design methods on codes and standards implementation and research.