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28 records – page 1 of 3.

Advanced Quality and In-Service Condition Assessment Procedures for Mass Timber and Cross-Laminated Timber Products

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2558
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
Mississippi State University
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Non-Destructive Evaluation
Bond Performance
Monitoring Techniques
Serviceability
Quality Assurance
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Project contacts are Frederico França at Mississippi State University and Robert J. Ross at the Forest Products Laboratory
Summary
With the rapid development of CLT manufacturing capacity around the world and the increasing architectural acceptance and adoption, there is a current and pressing need regarding adhesive bond quality assurance in manufacturing. As with other engineered glued composites, adhesive bondline performance is critically important. Bondline assessment requires technology in the form of sensors, ultrasonics, load cells, or other means of reliable machine evaluation. The objectives of this cooperative study are to develop quality assurance procedures for monitoring the quality of mass timber and CLT during and after manufacturing and to develop assessment techniques for CLT panels in-service.
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Buckling-restrained Braced Frames for Seismically Resilient Mass Timber Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2571
Topic
Seismic
Wind
Application
Frames
Organization
University of Utah
Application
Frames
Topic
Seismic
Wind
Keywords
Buckling Restrained Brace Frames
Resilient Building Design
Mass Timber
Energy Dissipation
Monitoring
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Project contact is Chris Pantelides at the University of Utah
Summary
A mass timber buckling-restrained braced frame is proposed to enhance the seismic resilience of mass timber buildings. Constructed using wood generated from the national forest system, the mass timber buckling-restrained brace will be integrated with a mass timber frame for structural energy dissipation under seismic or wind loads. The team will improve and optimize the design of structural components based on feedback from a real-time health monitoring system. Outcomes include guidelines for a lateral force resisting system of mass timber buildings in high seismic or wind regions.
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Characterizing and Quantifying Environmental and Economic Benefits of Cross Laminated Timber Buildings across the U.S.

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2564
Topic
Cost
Energy Performance
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Building Envelope
Organization
Colorado School of Mines
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Building Envelope
Topic
Cost
Energy Performance
Keywords
Numerical Analysis
Whole Building Energy Model
Building Envelope
Monitoring
Commercial Buildings
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Project contact is Paulo Tabares at the Colorado School of Mines
Summary
Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) is a mass timber material that has the potential to expand the wood building market in the U.S. However, new sustainable building technologies need extensive field and numerical validation quantifying environmental and economic benefits of using CLT as a sustainable building material so it can be broadly adopted in the building community. These benefits will also be projected nationwide across the United States once state-of-the-art software is validated and will include showcasing and documenting synergies between multiple technologies in the building envelope and heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. However, there are no such studies for CLT. The objective of this project is to quantify and showcase environmental and economic benefits of CLT as a sustainable building material in actual (and simulated) commercial buildings across the entire United States by doing: (1) on-site monitoring of at least four CLT buildings, (2) whole building energy model validation, (3) optimization of the performance and design for CLT buildings and (4) comparison with traditional building envelopes. This knowledge gap needs to be filled to position CLT on competitive grounds with steel and concrete and is the motivation for this study.
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Comparison between Predicted and Measured Moisture Content and Climate in 12 Monitored Timber Structures in Switzerland

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2895
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Moisture
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Schiere, Marcus
Franke, Bettina
Franke, Steffen
Müller, Andreas
Organization
Bern University of Applied Sciences
Editor
Brandner, Reinhard
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Moisture
Keywords
Moisture Content
Climate
Meteorological Data
Building Standards
Monitoring
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
Wood is a hygroscopic material that primarily adapts its moisture content to the surrounding relative humidity. The climate in a structure or building depends on the building type and the region the structure is located in. In this study, the effect of region on the moisture content of wood was investigated. Measurements taken in 12 ventilated timber structures were compared to the theoretical equilibrium moisture content calculated from the relative humidity and temperature in 107 meteorological stations across Switzerland. The monitored load-bearing elements were made of softwood and protected from the direct impact of weather. The climatic conditions around the Alps, a mountain range that runs from France to Austria and crosses Switzerland, can be divided into the following three different regions: (1) south of the Alps, where the climate is affected mainly by the Mediterranean sea; (2) north of the Alps, where the climate is affected by the Atlantic Ocean; and (3) the inner Alps, where the climate is considered to be relatively dry. The climatic conditions of the three separate regions were reflected in the measurements made in the monitored timber structures. Differences between the regions were quantified. The moisture content and relative humidity, similarly to temperature, depended on altitude (above sea level).
Online Access
Free
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External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems in Solid Timber Construction

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1639
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Serviceability
Moisture
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Günther, Simon
Ringhofer, Andreas
Schickhofer, Gerhard
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Serviceability
Moisture
Keywords
External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems
Hygrothermal
Long-term
Monitoring
Temperature
Relative Humidity
Moisture Content
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 3169-3178
Summary
External thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS) combined with cross laminated timber (CLT) reveal useful exterior wall constructions, which meet the requirements for sustainability, serviceability and durability of modern buildings efficiently. Associated thermal insulation and moisture protection requirements are essential design criteria to be considered in the planning process. In light of the European legal regulation concerning ETICS, our paper deals with the hygrothermal behavior of an existing exterior wall construction in solid timber construction with ETICS, experimentally determined by means of long-term monitoring situated in the residential project "_massive_living" (Graz, AT). Based on obtained data of temperature and rel. humidity for a period of two years, we not only evaluated building physics aspects concerning the suitability of the structure, but also derived the time depending course of the essential parameter "moisture content" for selected layers of the CLT element. In addition, corresponding data is compared with results gained from a hygrothermal simulation. Further investigation then was carried out determining the hygrical impact on the timber component by changing insulation material. Therefore, the hygrothermal behavior of commonly applied ETICS in combination with CLT as base material was simulated. Finally, resulting bandwidths of moisture content in dependence of the applied ETICS are shown and discussed.
Online Access
Free
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Field Measurement of Vertical Movement and Roof Moisture Performance of the Wood Innovation and Design Centre

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1182
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Serviceability
Moisture
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Roofs
Author
Wang, Jieying
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Roofs
Topic
Serviceability
Moisture
Keywords
Vertical Movement
Moisture Content
Temperature
Relative Humidity
Monitoring
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Two of the major topics of interest to those designing taller and larger wood buildings are the susceptibility to differential movement and the likelihood of mass timber components drying too slowly after they become wet during construction. The Wood Innovation and Design Centre in Prince George, British Columbia provides a unique opportunity for non-destructive testing and monitoring to measure the ‘As Built’ performance of a relatively tall mass timber building. Field measurements also provide performance data to support regulatory and market acceptance of wood-based systems in tall and large buildings. This report covers vertical movement and roof moisture performance measured from this building for about three and a half years, with sensors installed during the construction. The report first describes instrumentation. The locations selected for installing displacement sensors for measuring vertical movement comprised of the following: glued-laminated timber (glulam) columns together with cross-laminated timber (CLT) floors on three lower floors; a glulam column together with a parallel strand lumber (PSL) transfer beam on the first floor; and a CLT shear wall of the core structure on each floor from the second up to the top floor. Sensors were also installed to measure environmental conditions (temperature and relative humidity) in the immediate vicinity of the components being monitored. In addition, six locations in the timber roof were selected and instrumented for measuring moisture changes in the wood as well as the local environmental conditions. Most sensors went into operation in the middle of March 2014, after the roof sheathing was installed.
Online Access
Free
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Field Measurement of Vertical Movement and Roof Moisture Performance of the Wood Innovation and Design Centre

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1638
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Moisture
Serviceability
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Application
Roofs
Wood Building Systems
Author
Wang, Jieying
Karsh, Eric
Finch, Graham
Chen, Mingyuk
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Application
Roofs
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Moisture
Serviceability
Keywords
Moisture Content
Vertical Movement
Temperature
Relative Humidity
Monitoring
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 3152-3160
Summary
The Wood Innovation and Design Centre (WIDC) in Prince George, British Columbia, with 6 tall storeys and a total height of 29.5 m, provided a unique opportunity for non-destructive testing and monitoring to measure the ‘As Built’ performance of a relatively tall mass timber building. The mass timber structural system consists of glulam columns and beams with cross laminated timber (CLT) floor plates and shear walls. Vertical movement of selected glulam columns and CLT walls and the moisture content of the innovative mass timber roof were monitored as these components are unique to mass timber buildings. Indoor temperature and relative humidity conditions were also measured. The mass timber CLT and glulam elements are susceptible to longer-term differential movement as they slowly dry after manufacturing and construction. The paper describes instrumentation and discusses the measurement results for two years following the topping out of the structure. The monitoring indicated that the wood inside the building could reach a moisture content (MC) close to 4% in the winter in this cold climate, from an initial MC of around 13% during construction. Glulam columns were dimensionally stable in the longitudinal direction given the MC changes and loading conditions. With a height of over 5 m and 6 m, respectively, two glulam columns directly measured by sensors each showed vertical movement below 3 mm (i.e., 0.04%). The cumulative shortening of the six glulam columns along the height of the columns (24.5 m) is expected to be approximately 11 mm. This did not take into consideration any potential settlement or deformation at connections between glulam columns, or effects of reduced loads on the top two unoccupied floors. The CLT wall panels were also dimensionally stable along the height of the building, with cumulative vertical shrinkage of about 19 mm (i.e., 0.07%) from Level 1 to Level 6. In contrast, the 5-ply CLT floor slabs made up of wood in radial and tangential grain shrank in thickness by about 5 mm (3.0%) on average. With regards to the performance of the mass timber roof, the CLT roof panels started out dry and remained dry due to the robust assembly design and the dry indoor conditions. In one area the plywood roof sheathing was initially wetted by the application of a concrete topping below a piece of mechanical equipment, it was able to dry to the interior within a few months. Overall the monitoring study showed that the differential movement occurring among the glulam columns and the CLT wall was small and the mass timber roof design had good drying performance.
Online Access
Free
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How Monitoring CLT Buildings can Remove Market Barriers and Support Designers in North America: An Introduction to Preliminary Environmental Studies

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2357
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Design and Systems
Moisture
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Schmidt, Evan
Riggio, Mariapaola
Barbosa, Andre
Laleicke, Paul
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Moisture
Keywords
Hygrothermal Performance
Monitoring
Structural Health
Wood-Water Relationship
SMART-CLT Project
Research Status
Complete
Series
Revista Portuguesa de Engenharia de Estruturas
Summary
Currently, design of tall wood buildings is generally accomplished in the USA through the so-called alternate means process, with requires extensive testing, engineering analysis, and a stringent peer review process. As it pertains to cross-laminated timber (CLT), it is critical to develop effective performance prediction models, through laboratory testing elaborating on material behaviors (e.g. hygrothermal, vibrational, etc.) as well as monitoring data on the mid- to long-term performance of timber structures in situ. This paper presents the scope and preliminary outcomes of a project aiming to cross reference laboratory research and in-situ monitoring to establish a holistic performance-monitoring protocol for mass timber buildings; this protocol can later serve to define standards for mid- to long-term monitoring as well as to develop guidelines for the design of mass timber structures.
Online Access
Free
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Leveraging Structural Health Monitoring Data Through Avatars to Extend the Service Life of Mass Timber Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3085
Year of Publication
2022
Author
Riggio, Mariapaola
Mrissa, Michael
Krész, Miklós
Vcelák, Jan
Sandak, Jakub
Sandak, Anna
Organization
Oregon State University
University of Primorska
University of Szeged
Czech Technical University in Prague
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Keywords
Mass Timber Building
Hygrothermal Monitoring
Avatars
Microclimate Data
Mold Risk Models
Research Status
Complete
Series
Frontiers in Built Environment
Summary
Mass timber construction systems, incorporating engineered wood products as structural elements, are gaining acceptance as a sustainable alternative to multi-story concrete or steel-frame structures. The relative novelty of these systems brings uncertainties on whether these buildings perform long-term as expected. Consequently, several structural health monitoring (SHM) projects have recently emerged to document their behavior. A wide and systematic use of this data by the mass timber industry is currently hindered by limitations of SHM programs. These limitations include scalability, difficulty of data integration, diverse strategies for data collection, scarcity of relevant data, complexity of data analysis, and limited usability of predictive tools. This perspective paper envisions the use of avatars as a Web-based layer on top of sensing devices to support SHM data and protocol interoperability, analysis, and reasoning capability and to improve life cycle management of mass timber buildings. The proposed approach supports robustness, high level and large-scale interoperability and data processing by leveraging the Web protocol stack, overcoming many limitations of conventional centralized SHM systems. The design of avatars is applied in an exemplary scenario of hygrothermal data reconstruction, and use of this data to compare different mold growth prediction models. The proposed approach demonstrates the ability of avatars to efficiently filter and enrich data from heterogeneous sensors, thus overcoming problems due to data gaps or insufficient spatial distribution of sensors. In addition, the designed avatars can provide prediction or reasoning capability about the building, thus acting as a digital twin solution to support building lifecycle management.
Online Access
Free
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Living Lab at Peavy Hall: Structural Health Performance of Mass Timber Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2275
Organization
TallWood Design Institute
Keywords
Mass Timber
Monitoring Techniques
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Building on the results of an earlier project that established protocols for post-occupancy building monitoring, this project aims to install a system in the new Peavy Hall building at Oregon State University to monitor moisture, relative humidity, vertical and slip movements due to shrinkage & deflection, post-tensioning losses, vibration and seismic activity. The monitoring system will establish a “living” laboratory that demonstrates in real time how the mass timber components of the building are affected by various internal and external phenomena. The data will be gathered and analyzed over the service life of the building.
Summary
Project contact is Mariapaola Riggio.
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28 records – page 1 of 3.