In response to the global drive towards sustainable construction, CLT has emerged as a competitive alternative to other construction materials. CLT buildings taller than 10-storeys and CLT buildings in regions of moderate to high seismicity would be subject to higher lateral loads due to wind and earthquakes than CLT buildings which have already been completed. The lack of structural design codes and limited literature regarding the performance of CLT buildings under lateral loading are barriers to the adoption of CLT for buildings which could experience high lateral loading. Previous research into the behaviour of CLT buildings under lateral loading has involved testing of building components. These studies have generally been limited to testing wall systems and connections which replicate configurations at ground floor storeys in buildings no taller than three storeys. Consequently, to develop the understanding of the performance of multi-storey CLT buildings under lateral loading, the performance of wall systems and connections which replicate conditions of those in above ground floor storeys in buildings taller than three storeys were experimentally investigated. The testing of typical CLT connections involved testing eighteen configurations under cyclic loading in shear and tension. The results of this experimental investigation highlighted the need for capacity-based design of CLT connections to prevent brittle failure. It was found that both hold down and angle bracket connections have strength and stiffness in shear and tension and by considering the strength of the connections in both directions, more economical design of CLT buildings could be achieved. The testing of CLT wall systems involved testing three CLT wall systems with identical configurations under monotonic lateral load and constant vertical load, with vertical loads replicating gravity loads at storeys within a 10-storey CLT building. The results show that vertical load has a significant influence on wall system behaviour; varying the vertical load was found to vary the contribution of deformation mechanisms to global behaviour within the elastic region, reinforcing the need to consider connection design at each individual storey. As there are still no structural design codes for CLT buildings, the accuracy of analytical methods presented within the literature for predicting the behaviour of CLT connections and wall systems under lateral loading was assessed. It was found that the analytical methods for both connections and wall systems are highly inaccurate and do not reflect experimentally observed behaviour.
To support the associated Sir Matthew Begbie Elementary School and Bayview Elementary School projects in pushing the boundaries forward for long-span floor and roof construction, this testing project aims to compare different connection approaches for composite connections between glulam and cross-laminated timber (CLT) – for vibration, stiffness, and strength. Working with the University of Northern British Columbia (UNBC), Fast + Epp aimed to complete a series of vibration and monotonic load tests on 30’ long full-scale double-T ribbed panels. The tests consisted of screws in withdrawal, screws in shear, and nominal screws clamping with glue. Both the strength and stiffness are of interest, including slip stiffness of each connection type. This physical testing was completed in January and February 2020, where the full composite strength of each system was reached. Initial data analysis has provided information for comparison with existing models for shear connection stiffness. Publications will follow in 2021.
In Japan, the moment resistance connections of large-scale timber building are inefficiency in terms of time and economic, because connections and column base hardware are custom-made to obtain the required performance. To improve this problem, it is necessary to unify standardization of their connection. At first, in this study, we focused on column-base connection, the horizontal...
This project studied the effect of openings on the lateral performance of CLT shear walls
and the system behavior of the walls in a module. Three-layer Cross Laminated Timber
(CLT) was used for manufacturing the wall and module specimens. The laminar was
Spruce-Pine-Fir (SPF) #2&Better for both the major and minor layers. Each layer was 35
mm thick. The panel size was 2.44 m × 2.44 m.
Four configurations of walls were investigated: no opening, 25% opening, 37.5% opening,
and 50% opening. The opening was at the center of the wall and in the shape of a square.
A CLT module was made from two walls with 50% openings, with an overall thickness of
660 mm. The specimens were tested under monotonic loading and reverse-cyclic loading,
in accordance with ASTM E564-06 (2018) and ASTM E2126-19.
The wall without opening had an average peak load of 111.8 kN. It had little internal
deformation and the failure occurred at the connections. With a 25% opening, deformation
within the wall was observed but the failure remained at the connections. It had the same
peak load as the full wall. When the opening was increased to 37.5%, the peak load
decreased by 6% to 104.9 kN and the specimens failed in wood at the corners of the
opening. Further increasing the opening to 50%, the peak load dropped drastically to 63.4
kN, only 57% of the full wall.
The load-displacement relationship was approximately linear until the load reached 60%
of the peak or more. Compared to the full wall, the wall with 25% opening had 65% of the
stiffness. When the opening increased to 37.5% and 50%, the stiffness reduced to 50% and
24% of the full wall, respectively. The relationship between stiffness and opening ratio was
approximately linear. The loading protocol had effect on the peak load but not on the
stiffness. There was more degradation for larger openings under reverse-cyclic loading.
The performance of the module indicated the presence of system effect that improves the
ductility of the wall, which is important for the seismic performance of the proposed
midrise to tall wood buildings. The test data was compared to previous models found in
literature. Simplified analytical models were also developed to estimate the lateral stiffness
and strength of CLT wall with openings.
In this study, the duration-of-load and size effects on the rolling shear strength of CLT manufactured from MPB-afflicted lumber were evaluated. The study of the duration-of-load effect on the strength properties of wood products is typically challenging; and, additional complexity exists with the duration-of-load effect on the rolling shear strength of CLT, given the necessary consideration of crosswise layups of wood boards, existing gaps and glue bonding between layers.
In this research, short-term ramp loading tests and long-term trapezoidal fatigue loading tests (damage accumulation tests) were used to study the duration-of-load behaviour of the rolling shear strength of CLT. In the ramp loading test, three-layer CLT products showed a relatively lower rolling shear load-carrying capacity. Torque loading tests on CLT tubes were also performed. The finite element method was adopted to simulate the structural behaviour of CLT specimens. Evaluation of the rolling shear strength based on test data was discussed. The size effect on the rolling shear strength was investigated.
The results suggest that the rolling shear duration-of-load strength adjustment factor for CLT is more severe than the general duration-ofload adjustment factor for lumber, and this difference should be considered in the introduction of CLT into the building codes for engineered wood design.
In recent years, there has been an increasing trend in Australia and New Zealand towards the use of long-span timber and timber-concrete composite (TCC) flooring systems for the construction of multi-storey timber buildings. The popularity of these flooring systems is because of their low cost, easy construction and the use of environmentally sustainable materials. Due to their light-weight, such long-span floors are however highly susceptible to vibrations induced by service loads. Although longspan timber and TCC flooring systems can easily be designed to resist the static loads using currently available design guidelines, it is crucial to also investigate the dynamic behaviour of these floors as the occupant discomfort due to excessive vibration may govern the design. Moreover, many structural failures are caused by dynamic interactions due to resonances, which highlight the importance of investigating the dynamic behaviour of flooring systems. To date, there are very limited design guidelines to address the vibration in long-span floors, especially composite floors, due to a lack of sufficient investigation.
In 2009, a research consortium named Structural Timber Innovation Company (STIC) was founded, with the aim to address various issues encountered with structural timber buildings including timber and TCC flooring systems. STIC is conducting Research and Development (R & D) work in a number of key areas to provide a new competitive edge for commercial and industrial structural timber buildings. The R & D work is undertaken with three parallel objectives at three universities, namely, the University of Technology Sydney (UTS), the University of Canterbury (UC) and the University of Auckland (UA). The focus of UTS is the assessment of various performance issues of long-span timber only and TCC flooring systems for multi-storey timber buildings. The work presented in this thesis deals with the investigation of the dynamic performance of timber only and TCC flooring systems, which is one of the sub-objectives of the research focus at UTS.
In particular, the presented research assesses the dynamic performance of long-span timber and TCC flooring systems using different experimental und numerical test structures. For the experimental investigations, experimental modal testing and analysis is executed to determine the modal parameters (natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes) of various flooring systems. For the numerical investigations, finite element models are calibrated against experimental results, and are utilised for parametric studies for flooring systems of different sizes. Span tables are generated for both timber and TCC flooring systems that can be used in the design of long-span flooring systems to satisfy the serviceability fundamental frequency requirement of 8 Hz or above. For floors where vibration is deemed to be critical, the dynamic assessment using the 8 Hz frequency requirement alone may not be sufficient and additional dynamic criteria such as response factor, peak acceleration and unit load deflection need to be satisfied. To predict the fundamental frequency of various TCC beams and timber floor modules (beams), five different analytical models are utilised and investigated.
To predict the cross-sectional characteristics of TCC systems and to identify the effective flexural stiffness of partially composite beams, the “Gamma method” is utilised. Essential input parameters for the “Gamma method” are the shear connection properties (strength, serviceability stiffness and ultimate stiffness) that must be identified. Therefore, a number of experimental tests are carried out using small scale specimens to identify strength and serviceability characteristics of four different types of shear connection systems and three of them were adopted in the TCC beams. The connections included two types of mechanical fasteners (normal wood screw and SFS screw) and two types of notched connectors (bird-mouth and trapezoidal shape) with coach screw.
Traditionally, the composite action of a system is determined from static load testing using deflection measurements. However, static load testing is expensive, time consuming and difficult to perform on existing flooring systems. Therefore, two novel methods are developed in this thesis that determines the degree of composite action of timber composite flooring systems using only measurements from non-destructive dynamic testing. The core of both methods is the use of an existing mode-shape-based damage detection technique, namely, the Damage Index (DI) method to derive the loss of composite action indices (LCAIs) named as LCAI1 and LCAI2. The DI method utilises modal strain energies derived from mode shape measurements of a flooring system before and after failure of shear connectors. The proposed methods are tested and validated on a numerical and experimental timber composite beam structure consisting of two LVL components (flange and web). To create different degrees of composite action, the beam is tested with different numbers of shear connectors to simulate the failure of connection screws. The results acquired from the proposed dynamic-based method are calibrated to make them comparable to traditional static-based composite action results. It is shown that the two proposed methods can successfully be used for timber composite structures to determine the composite action using only mode shapes measurements from dynamic testing.
The effects of veneer orientation and loading direction on the mechanical properties of bamboo-bundle/poplar veneer laminated veneer lumber (BWLVL) were investigated by a statistical analysis method. Eight types of laminated structure were designed for the BWLVL aiming to explore the feasibility of manufacturing high-performance bamboo-based composites. A specific type of bamboo species named Cizhu bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis) with a thickness of 6 mm and diameter of 65 mm was used. The wood veneers were from fast-growing poplar tree (Populus ussuriensis Kom.) in China. The bamboo bundles were obtained by a mechanical process. They were then formed into uniform veneers using a onepiece veneer technology. Bamboo bundle and poplar veneer were immersed in water-soluble phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin with low molecular weight for 7 min and dried to MC of 8–12 % under the ambient environment. All specimens were prepared through hand lay-up using compressing molding method. The density and mechanical properties including modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), and shearing strength (SS) of samples were characterized under loading parallel and perpendicular to the glue line. The results indicated that as the contribution of bamboo bundle increased in laminated structure, especially laminated on the surface layers, the MOE, MOR and SS increased. A lay-up BBPBPBB (Bbamboo, P-poplar) had the highest properties due to the cooperation of bamboo bundle and poplar veneer. A higher value of MOE and MOR was found for the perpendicular loading test than that for the parallel test, while a slightly higher SS was observed parallel to the glue line compared with perpendicular loading. Any lay-up within the homogeneous group can be used to replace others for obtaining the same mechanical properties in applications. These findings suggested that the laminated structure with high stiffness laid-up on the surface layers could improve the performance of natural fiber reinforced composites.
Many of the 1,400 timber bridges in Minnesota do not meet present day standards. Some of these bridges can be improved rather than replaced. When the desired service level can be attained by widening a bridge six feet or less, the bridge can be retrofitted by placing a second, wider, transverse deck onto the existing deck and substructure. Bridge components must be carefully inspected prior to a retrofit project. The retrofit of Bridge #6641 in Sibley County is a good example. First, the bituminous surface was removed. A longitudinal beam supported the extended deck. Grout was poured and leveled and then nail-laminated panels were laid transversely. A bituminous surface was laid over the full width of the new deck. The cost of the project was $51,632. (Replacing the bridge was estimated to take 2-3 years and cost $215,000.) The county quantified the strength change and load distribution characteristics by performing static and dynamic load tests before and after the retrofit. Adding a second deck effectively decreased the static deflections and improved the transverse load distribution. Nail-laminated timber bridge #2642, also in Sibley County, was retrofitted in 1992 and load-tested again in 1995. All dynamic deflections were lower than those of the post-retrofit tests in 1992. This improvement can be explained in part by the drying of the moisture that was introduced into the bridge deck during grouting. A retrofitted timber bridge is expected to last an additional 20-40 years.
Three innovative massive wooden shear-wall systems (Cross-Laminated-Glued Wall, Cross-Laminated-Stapled Wall, Layered Wall with dovetail inserts) were tested and their structural behaviour under seismic action was assessed with numerical simulations. The wall specimens differ mainly in the method used to assemble the layers of timber boards composing them. Quasi-static cyclic loading tests were carried out and then reproduced with a non-linear numerical model calibrated on the test results to estimate the most appropriate behaviour factor for each system. Non-linear dynamic simulations of 15 artificially generated seismic shocks showed that these systems have good dissipative capacity when correctly designed and that they can be assigned to the medium ductility class of Eurocode 8. This work also shows the influence of deformations in wooden panels and base connectors on the behaviour factor and dissipative capacity of the system.
The seismic performance of a post-tensioned (PT) energy dissipating beam-to-column joint for glulam heavy timber structure is investigated in this paper. Such connection incorporates post-tensioned high-strength strand to provide self-centering capacity along with energy dissipating produced by a special steel cap, which is attached with the timber beam and also to prevent the end bearing failure of wood. The moment-rotation behaviour of the proposed posttensioned timber joint was investigated through a series of cyclic loading tests. The timber joint was loaded at the end of the beams to produce a moment at the joint, and the tests were conducted with three different post-tension forces in the steel strand. The hysteretic behaviour and self-centering capacity of the joint are evaluated based on the results from cyclic loading tests. The failure mechanism of the joint was illustrated through test observations, and the momentresisting capacity and energy dissipation of the joint were analysed with regard to various drift level. This research aims to provide possible solutions to minimize the residual deformation of heavy timber structure made of glulam in China.