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318 records – page 2 of 32.

Assessment of Disproportionate Collapse for Multi Storey Cross Laminated Timber Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1664
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Mpidi Bita, Hercend
Currie, Neil
Tannert, Thomas
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Rotational Stiffness
Multi-Storey
Ductility
Loading
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 3725-3733
Summary
This paper investigates the risk of disproportionate collapse following extreme loading events. The methodology mimics a sudden removal of a loadbearing wall of a twelve-storey CLT building. The ductility-demand from the dynamic simulation is checked against the ductility supplied by the structural components and their connections. The analyses focus on rotational stiffness (k) of the joints by considering three different sub-structural idealisations according to the required modelling details and the feasibility of model reductions. To resist the imposed dynamic forces, the required k-values may be too large to be practically achieved by means of off-the-shelf brackets and screw connections. Improved structural detailing as well as adequate thickness of structural elements need to be considered in order to reduce the probability of disproportionate collapse.
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Bamboo Reinforced Glulam Beams: An Alternative to CFRP Reinforced Glulam Beams

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue640
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Author
Echavarria, Cesar
Echavarría, Beatriz
Cañola, Hernán
Publisher
Scientific.net
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Bamboo
CFRP
Load-Deformation
Reinforcement
Stiffness
Strength
Research Status
Complete
Series
Advanced Materials Research
Summary
A research study was undertaken to investigate the mechanical performance of glulam beams reinforced by CFRP or bamboo. Local reinforcement is proposed in order to improve the flexural strength of glulam beams. The glulam beam is strengthened in tension and along its sides with the carbon fiber-reinforced polymer CFRP or bamboo. A series of CFRP reinforced glulam beams and bamboo reinforced glulam beams were tested to determine their load-deformation characteristics. Experimental work for evaluating the reinforcing technique is reported here. According to experiment results, the CFRP and bamboo reinforcements led to a higher glulam beam performance. By using CFRP and bamboo reinforcements several improvements in strength may be obtained.
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Basis of Design - Performance-Based Design and Structural CD Drawings for Framework Office Building in Portland, OR

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1827
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Organization
KPFF Consulting Engineers
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Structural
Wind Load
Sustainability
Reliability
Seismic
Earthquake Resistance
Serviceability
Design
Research Status
Complete
Series
Framework: An Urban + Rural Design
Notes
Document includes 100% CD construction drawings
Summary
This document outlines the basis of design for the performance-based design and nonlinear response history analysis of the Framework Project in Portland, OR. It is intended to be a living document that will be modified and revised as the project develops and in response to peer review comments. Performance-based design is pursued for this project because the proposed lateral force-resisting system, consisting of post-tensioned rocking cross-laminated timber (CLT) walls is not included in ASCE/SEI 7-10 Table 12.2-1. Lateral force-resisting systems included in ASCE/SEI 7-10 Table 12.2-1 may be designed for earthquake effects using the prescriptive provisions in ASCE/SEI 7- 10. Lateral force-resisting systems not included are still permitted but must be demonstrated to have performance not less than that expected for included systems. This option is available via the performance-based procedures of ASCE/SEI 7-10 Section 1.3.1.3. Note that lateral forceresisting systems for wind effects are not restricted in ASCE/SEI 7-10. Therefore, design for wind effects will still be approached within the performance-based design framework but in a more state-of-the-practice manner.
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Behavior and Damage Characterization of Impulsively Loaded Cross-Laminated Timber Panels

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3282
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Flores, Noel R.
Gentry, Russell
Stewart, Lauren, K.
Organization
Georgia Institute of Technology
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Impulsive Loading
Damage
Shock
Blast
Impact
High-rate
Hydraulic Actuator
Research Status
Complete
Series
Applied Sciences
Summary
This research bridges the gap between the quasi-static and high-strain-rate loading regimes in cross-laminated timber (CLT) by investigating two areas that have remained unstudied or elusive, i.e., rolling shear failure of CLT under impulsive, blast-like loading and intermediate strain rates in CLT. To study the conditions that would promote shear modes of failure, a novel, highly adaptable center-point testing system and methodology were developed that permitted the application of impulsive loading to undamaged CLT panels in a highly controlled and repeatable manner. The loading condition and low span-to-depth ratio (6.40 = L:h = 6.55) CLT were selected to encourage the development of shear modes of failure. Changes to the rotational rigidity at the boundary conditions allowed for the empirical simulation of realistic boundary conditions. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and load cell data were used to identify failure modes following loss in resistance in the specimens. Overall, the experiment was successful in consistently eliciting shear modes of failure and providing damage characterization in impulsively loaded CLT. Shear modes of failure resulted in the dramatic loss of resistance in all specimens tested. Strain-rate enhancement in the dynamic apparent flexural stiffness of CLT of 1.3 to 7.2 times was observed. Lower levels of damage were observed in specimens with higher levels of boundary-condition rotational rigidity.
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Behavior of Cross-Laminated Timber Diaphragm Panel-to-Panel Connections with Self-Tapping Screws

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1422
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Sullivan, Kyle
Organization
Oregon State University
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Lateral Load Resisting System
Monotonic Tests
Cyclic Tests
Strength
Stiffness
Self-Tapping Screws
International Building Code
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The goal of this project is to contribute to the development of design values for cross-laminated timber (CLT) diaphragms in the seismic load-resisting system for buildings. Monotonic and cyclic tests to determine strength and stiffness characteristics of 2.44 m (8 ft) long shear connections with common self-tapping screws were performed. Understanding and quantifying the behavior of these shear connections will aid in developing design provisions in the National Design Specification for Wood Construction and the International Building Code so structural engineers can use CLT more confidently in lateral force-resisting systems and extend the heights of wood buildings. Experimental strength-to-design strength ratios were in the range of 2.1 to 8.7. In the ASCE 41 acceptance criteria analysis, the m-factors for the Life Safety performance level in cyclic tests ranged from 1.6 to 1.8 for surface spline connections and from 0.9 to 1.7 for cyclic half-lap connections. The half-lap connections, where screws were installed in withdrawal, shear, shear, and withdrawal, performed exceptionally well with both high, linear-elastic, initial stiffness, and ductile, post-peak behavior.
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Behavior of Strengthened Timber Concrete Composite Under Axial Loads

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2778
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Author
El-Salakawy, Tarek
Gamal, Amr
Publisher
ScienceDirect
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Axial Loading
Strengthening
Wire Mesh
Epoxy
Modulus of Elasticity
Failure Mode
Ductility
Post Failure Behavior
Research Status
Complete
Series
Case Studies in Construction Materials
Summary
The research study focuses on different strengthening techniques for timber concrete composites (TCC) using different types of wire and wire mesh integrated with a layer of epoxy on a timber core embedded in concrete using experimental and analytical procedure. The impact of TCC on axial compression performance, modulus of elasticity, failure mode and post failure behavior and ductility were compared to reference concrete specimens. Different types of wire and wire mesh used in strengthening of the timber core, timber core size and reinforcement in the concrete cylinder were all parameters considered in this study. Timing of application of the epoxy on the wire strengthened timber core was very important. For structural applications, where the weight reduction and ductility as well as post failure endurance are essential, the development of this composite is recommended. The ratio of the ductility index to the weight is discussed. The light weight of the timber composite, and the increased ductility were noted in this study. An equation to estimate the axial compression capacity of the strengthened timber concrete composite was developed in this study. This study will pave the way for further applications for timber concrete composite aiming at reducing dead weight of concrete and the reducing the amount of concrete and steel in construction.
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Behaviour of Cross-Laminated Timber Subjected to Blast Loading

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2451
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Poulin, Mathieu
Organization
University of Ottawa
Year of Publication
2019
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Blast Loading
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Heavy timber construction is emerging as a viable alternative to conventional building materials, such as steel and concrete, for mid- and high rise structures. With the increasing presence of timber structures at or near potential targets comes an increased risk for damage to the structure and more importantly human casualties. The current provisions related to wood in the blast code (CSA, 2012) are limited and based on general understanding of the material behaviour rather than thorough research studies. Also, the standard does not clearly distinguish between the various types of engineered wood products. A study was undertaken to assess the behaviour of cross-laminated timber panels subjected to simulated blast loading using a shock tube apparatus. More specifically, the aim of this study was to investigate the behaviour of CLT panels subjected to static and dynamic loads to determine a dynamic increase factor in order to quantify high strain rate effects on this material. Testing was completed on a total of 18 CLT panels, with panel thicknesses of 105 and 175 mm corresponding to a 3-ply and 5-ply panel, respectively. An average dynamic increase factor of 1.28 on the resistance and no apparent increase in stiffness from static to dynamic loading were observed. Two resistance material predictive models that account for high strain-rate effects and the experimentally observed post-peak residual behavior were developed. A single degree-of-freedom model was validated using full-scale simulated blast load tests, and the predictions were found to match well with the experimental displacement-time histories.
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Behaviour of Multi-Storey Cross-Laminated Timber Buildings Under Lateral Loading

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2715
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Connections
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Author
Hughes, Claire
Publisher
Queen's University Belfast
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Topic
Connections
Design and Systems
Keywords
Lateral Loading
Tall Wood
Tall Timber Buildings
Connections
Monotonic Loading Tests
Constant Vertical Load
Wall Systems
Experimental Tests
Analytical Approach
Multi-Storey
Research Status
Complete
Summary
In response to the global drive towards sustainable construction, CLT has emerged as a competitive alternative to other construction materials. CLT buildings taller than 10-storeys and CLT buildings in regions of moderate to high seismicity would be subject to higher lateral loads due to wind and earthquakes than CLT buildings which have already been completed. The lack of structural design codes and limited literature regarding the performance of CLT buildings under lateral loading are barriers to the adoption of CLT for buildings which could experience high lateral loading. Previous research into the behaviour of CLT buildings under lateral loading has involved testing of building components. These studies have generally been limited to testing wall systems and connections which replicate configurations at ground floor storeys in buildings no taller than three storeys. Consequently, to develop the understanding of the performance of multi-storey CLT buildings under lateral loading, the performance of wall systems and connections which replicate conditions of those in above ground floor storeys in buildings taller than three storeys were experimentally investigated. The testing of typical CLT connections involved testing eighteen configurations under cyclic loading in shear and tension. The results of this experimental investigation highlighted the need for capacity-based design of CLT connections to prevent brittle failure. It was found that both hold down and angle bracket connections have strength and stiffness in shear and tension and by considering the strength of the connections in both directions, more economical design of CLT buildings could be achieved. The testing of CLT wall systems involved testing three CLT wall systems with identical configurations under monotonic lateral load and constant vertical load, with vertical loads replicating gravity loads at storeys within a 10-storey CLT building. The results show that vertical load has a significant influence on wall system behaviour; varying the vertical load was found to vary the contribution of deformation mechanisms to global behaviour within the elastic region, reinforcing the need to consider connection design at each individual storey. As there are still no structural design codes for CLT buildings, the accuracy of analytical methods presented within the literature for predicting the behaviour of CLT connections and wall systems under lateral loading was assessed. It was found that the analytical methods for both connections and wall systems are highly inaccurate and do not reflect experimentally observed behaviour.
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Behaviours of Larch Glued Laminated Timber Beams Exposed to Standard Fire Heating During the Cooling Phase Study on Fire Performance of Structural Glued Laminated Timber Beams Part 1

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1112
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Fire
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Author
Kanjo, Hinjin
Hidemasa, Yusa
Horio, Takehito
Hirashima, Takeo
Takumi, Matsumoto
Saito, Kiyoshi
Publisher
J-STAGE
Year of Publication
2015
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Larch
Load Bearing Capacity
Charring Rate
Cooling
Research Status
Complete
Series
Architectural Institute of Japan Structural System
Summary
Timber elements, which are different from other structural elements, have a characteristic problem in that the load bearing capacity decreases due to self-burning in the case of a fire, and this self-burning may continue after other fuel in the room has been exhausted. Therefore, the structural fire performance of timber elements should be clarified during not only the heating phase, but also the cooling phase. However, in examining the load bearing capacity of timber elements in a fire, few studies have considered the cooling phase. In the present paper, the fire performance of glued, laminated timber beams is discussed based on load-bearing fire tests that take the cooling phase into consideration.
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Bending Beams Made of Cross Laminated Timber with Load in Board Plane

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1143
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Author
Flaig, Marcus
Organization
Karlsruher Institut für Technologie
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
bending resistance
Shear Load Capacity
Deformations
Research Status
Complete
Summary
In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden die Anwendungsmöglichkeiten von Biegeträgern aus Brettsperrholz bei Beanspruchung in Plattenebene untersucht. Mit Hilfe numerischer und analytischer Methoden wurden die für die Bemessung von Brettsperrholzträgern erforderlichen Ansätze für den Nachweis der Biege- und der Schubtragfähigkeit sowie zur Berechnung der Verformungen entwickelt und hergeleitet.
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318 records – page 2 of 32.