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Development of Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) Products from Stress Graded Canadian Hem-Fir

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2595
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Wei, Peixing
Wang, Brad
Li, Zhong
Ju, Ronghua
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Hem-Fir
Modulus of Elasticity
Modulus of Rupture
Stress-Graded Lumber
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Wood Research
Summary
To explore the feasibility of hem-fir for CLT products, this work addressed the exploratory and pilot plant studies of hem-fir cross-laminated timber (CLT) products through mechanical tests. The hem-fir lumber was procured and then stress-graded based on dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOE). The resulted 5-ply prototype CLT products were then tested non-destructively and 3-ply pilot plant hem-fir CLT was tested destructively. The results showed that bending performance of hem-fir CLT panel can be predicted. Considering cost-competitiveness and end applications of hem-fir CLT products, the panel structure can be optimized based on the stress-graded data of hem-fir lumber.
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Free
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The Evaluation of Panel Bond Quality and Durability of Hem-Fir Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT)

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1377
Year of Publication
2018
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Wang, Brad
Wei, Peixing
Gao, Zizhen
Dai, Chunping
Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Year of Publication
2018
Country of Publication
Germany
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Keywords
North America
Manufacturing
Hem-Fir
Bond Quality
Durability
Delamination Tests
Block Shear Tests
One-Component Polyurethane
Emulsion Polymer Isocyanate
Applied Pressure
Wood Failure Percentage
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
European Journal of Wood and Wood Products
ISSN
1436-736X
Summary
To better use the second-growth wood resources in value-added applications, this work addressed the manufacturing aspects of cross-laminated timber (CLT) products from western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg) and amabilis fir (Abies amabilis (Dougl.) Forbes) (or hem-fir) harvested from coastal British Columbia, Canada. Small CLT billets (nominal 610 mm×610 mm) were made to examine CLT bond quality and durability through block shear and delamination tests. Two types of adhesives, single-component polyurethane (PUR) and emulsion polymer isocyanate (EPI) and two critical applied pressure parameters (0.28 and 0.83 MPa) were adopted to manufacture hem-fir CLT. It was found that the adhesive type and applied pressure significantly affected wood failure percentage (WFP) and delamination of hem-fir CLT. When PUR adhesive was used, CLT made at 0.83 MPa pressure yielded significantly higher WFP and lower delamination than that made at 0.28 MPa pressure. The results demonstrated that despite the fact that hem-fir lumber is not particularly specified in the current North American CLT standard, it could be used for manufacturing CLT with the required panel bond quality.
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Free
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Moisture Response of Wall Assemblies of Cross-Laminated Timber Construction in Cold Canadian Climates

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue143
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Serviceability
Moisture
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Author
Lepage, Robert
Organization
University of Waterloo
Year of Publication
2012
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Topic
Serviceability
Moisture
Keywords
Canada
Climate
Decay
Durability
Hem-Fir
Hygrothermal
Mold
Relative Humidity
Rot
Simulation
SPF
Water Vapour Permeability
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Wood is a highly versatile renewable material (with carbon sequestering properties), that is light in weight, has good strength properties in both tension and compression while providing good rigidity and toughness, and good insulating properties (relative to typical structural materials). Engineered wood products combine the benefits of wood with engineering knowledge to create optimized structural elements. Cross-laminated timber (CLT), as one such engineered wood product, is an emerging engineering material which provides great opportunities for the building industry. While building with wood has many benefits, there are also some concerns, particularly decay. Should wood be exposed to elevated amounts of moisture, rots and moulds may damage the product or even risk the health of the occupants. As CLT panels are a relatively new engineered wood product, the moisture characteristics have yet to be properly assessed.
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Free
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Treatability of Cross Laminated Timber With a Low Moisture Uptake Surface-Applied Penetrating Process for Applying Termiticides

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2642
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Serviceability
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Stirling, Rod
Morris, Paul
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2014
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Serviceability
Keywords
Termites
Preservative Treatment
Panels
Hem-Fir
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) may require preservative treatment in markets with severe termite hazards. Given the size of CLT panels, conventional pressure treatment would not be feasible. We therefore assessed the treatability of CLT panels with an alternative low moisture uptake surface-applied penetrating process for applying termiticides. Hem-fir panels were selected for the initial tests on the grounds that western hemlock and amabilis fir are relatively treatable. Nine test panels were dip treated and stored for 7, 14, or 21 day activation periods. Borate retention ranged from 1.2 to 6.5 kg/m3 and penetration ranged from 3 to 9 mm. Longer activation periods did not result in improved penetration. Greater penetration would likely be needed to meet performance-based standards.
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Free
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