A series of compartment fire experiments has been undertaken to evaluate the impact of combustible cross laminated timber linings on the compartment fire behaviour. Compartment heat release rates and temperatures are reported for three configuration of exposed timber surfaces. Auto-extinction of the compartment was observed in one case but this was not observed when the experiment was repeated under identical condition. This highlights the strong interaction between the exposed combustible material and the resulting fire dynamics. For large areas of exposed timber linings heat transfer within the compartment dominates and prevents auto-extinction. A framework is presented based on the relative durations of the thermal penetration time of a timber layer and compartment fire duration to account for the observed differences in fire dynamics. This analysis shows that fall-off of the charred timber layers is a key contributor to whether auto-extinction can be achieved.
This thesis studies the fire behaviour of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) panels in partially protected rooms. A one-dimensional heat transfer model was developed to determine the fire resistance of CLT floor and wall panels. During this study, three room fire tests were conducted at Carleton University Fire Research Laboratory to determine the maximum percentage of unprotected CLT surface area that will yield similar results to that of a fully protected room. The rooms had a single opening and were constructed entirely using 3-ply, 105 mm thick CLT panels. A non-standard, parametric fire using furniture and clothing as fuel was used and 2 layers of gypsum board were used to cover the ceiling and the protected walls. The Heat Release Rate, temperature, charring rate and gypsum falloff time of each test was collected. The results obtained from the room test were then compared to the numerical heat transfer model to evaluate its accuracy.
The advance in mass timber products has allowed buildings to be revolutionised. Medium rise buildings can utilise these panels as the main structural components achieving suitable strength and rigidity. Structural connections often pose the weakest element in timber construction...
This paper presents a numerical model for heat transfer in timber structures. The thermal behaviour is described by the standard Fourier heat equation. The chosen model integrates the three modes of heat transfer; namely: conduction, radiation and convection during the fire exposure. The theory and the boundary conditions associated with the model are briefly discussed. The identification of the model parameters is carried out with the experimental data available in literature. The simulation results are compared with experiments carried out on laminated veneer lumber (LVL) panels.
Three timber-concrete composite floor assemblies were evaluated for fire performance to understand how shear connectors might impact heat transfer into the assemblies. The floor assemblies tested included a CLTconcrete floor with self-tapping screws, a screw-laminated 2x8-concrete using truss plates, and a LVL-concrete using...
An advanced modelling tool, WoodST, has been developed for fire safety analysis of timber structures. It is demonstrated that this advanced modelling tool can predict the structural response of LVL beams, glulam bolted connections, OSB-web I-joist and wood-frame floors under forces and fire conditions with an accuracy acceptable to design practitioners (i.e., within 10% of test data). The developed modelling tool can:
Fill the gap in terms of suitable models for timber connections, which is an impediment for the design and construction of tall wood buildings;
Provide a cost-effective simulation solution compared to costly experimental solutions; and
Significantly reduce the cost and shorten the time for the development and/or optimization of new wood-based products and connections.