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An Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from CLT and Glulam in Two Residential Nearly Zero Energy Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2441
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems

Circular Economy & the Built Environment Sector in Canada

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2805
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Environmental Impact
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Other Materials
Application
Wood Building Systems
Hybrid Building Systems
Organization
Delphi Group
SCIUS Advisory
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Other Materials
Application
Wood Building Systems
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Design and Systems
Keywords
Circular Economy
Greenhouse gas emissions
Waste
Demolition
Design for Disassembly and Adaptibility
Design for Durability
Deconstruction
Material Recovery
Reverse Logistics
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This study on Circular Economy & the Built Environment Sector in Canada was carried out by The Delphi Group in collaboration with Scius Advisory and completed in March 2021 on behalf of Forestry Innovation Investment Ltd. (FII) in British Columbia and Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) as the co-sponsors for the research. The work identifies a broad range of current efforts across Canada and undertakes a deeper dive on design for disassembly and adaptability (DfD/A) best practices, including an analysis of the ISO Standard 20887:2020 (i.e., design for disassembly and adaptability) in line with current Canadian industry practice and market readiness.
Online Access
Free
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Cradle-to-Gate Life-Cycle Assessment of a Glued-Laminated Wood Product from Quebec's Boreal Forest

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2555
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Laurent, Achille
Gaboury, Simon
Wells, Jean-Robert
Bonfils, Sibi
Boucher, Jean-François
Sylvie, Bouchard
D'Amours, Sophie
Villeneuve, Claude
Publisher
Forest Products Society
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
LCA
Cradle-to-Gate
Sustainability
Greenhouse gas emissions
Carbon Footprint
Research Status
Complete
Series
Forest Products Journal
Summary
The building sector is increasingly identified as being energy and carbon intensive. Although the majority of emissions are linked to energy usage during the operation part of a building's life cycle, choice of construction materials could play a significant role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental end-point damages. Increasing the use of wood products in buildings may contribute to the solution, but their environmental impacts are difficult to assess and quantify because they depend on a variety of uncertain parameters. The present cradle-to-gate life-cycle analysis (LCA) focuses exclusively on a glued-laminated wood product (glulam) produced from North American boreal forests located in the province of Quebec, Canada. This study uses primary data to quantify the environmental impacts of all necessary stages of products' life cycle, from harvesting the primary resources, to manufacturing the transformed product into glulam. The functional unit is 1 m3 of glulam. This is the first study based on primary data pertaining to Quebec's boreal forest. Quebec's boreal glulam manufacturing was compared with two other LCAs on glulam in Europe and the United States. Our results show that Quebec's glulam has a significantly smaller environmental footprint than what is reported in the literature. From an LCA perspective, there is a significant advantage to producing glulam in Quebec, compared with the European and American contexts. The same holds true in regard to the four end-point damage categories.
Online Access
Free
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Dynamic Life Cycle Carbon and Energy Analysis for Cross-Laminated Timber in the Southeastern United States

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2688
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Energy Performance
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Lan, Kai
Kelley, Stephen
Nepal, Prakash
Yao, Yuan
Publisher
IOP Publishing Ltd
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Energy Performance
Keywords
Life-Cycle Assessment
LCA
Dynamic
Carbon Analysis
Greenhouse gas emissions
Energy Consumption
Cradle-to-Grave
Research Status
Complete
Series
Environmental Research Letters
Summary
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used to understand the carbon and energy implications of manufacturing and using cross-laminated timber (CLT), an emerging and sustainable alternative to concrete and steel. However, previous LCAs of CLT are static analyses without considering the complex interactions between the CLT manufacturing and forest systems, which are dynamic and largely affected by the variations in forest management, CLT manufacturing, and end-of-life options. This study fills this gap by developing a dynamic life-cycle modeling framework for a cradle-to-grave CLT manufacturing system across 100 years in the Southeastern United States. The framework integrates process-based simulations of CLT manufacturing and forest growth as well as Monte Carlo simulation to address uncertainty. On 1-ha forest land basis, the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions ranges from -954 to -1445 metric tonne CO2 eq. for a high forest productivity scenario compared to -609 to -919 for a low forest productivity scenario. All scenarios showed significant GHG emissions from forest residues decay, demonstrating the strong need to consider forest management and their dynamic impacts in LCAs of CLT or other durable wood products (DWP). The results show that using mill residues for energy recovery has lower fossil-based GHG (59%–61% reduction) than selling residues for producing DWP, but increases the net GHG emissions due to the instantaneous release of biogenic carbon in residues. In addition, the results were converted to 1 m3 basis with a cradle-to-gate system boundary to be compared with literature. The results, 113–375 kg CO2 eq./m3 across all scenarios, were consistent with previous studies. Those findings highlight the needs of system-level management to maximize the potential benefits of CLT. This work is an attributional LCA, but the presented results lay a foundation for future consequential LCAs for specific CLT buildings or commercial forest management systems.
Online Access
Free
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Environmental and Economic Evaluation of Small-Scale Bridge Repair Using Cross-Laminated Timber Floor Slabs

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2397
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Design and Systems
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Bridges and Spans

Life Cycle Analysis of Cross Laminated Timber in Buildings: A Review

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2141
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Cadorel, Xavier
Crawford, Robert
Organization
The University of Melbourne
Year of Publication
2019
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Greenhouse gas emissions
Life-Cycle Assessment European Standard EN15978
Multi-Family
Multi-Storey
Mixed-Use Building
Buildings
Conference
International Conference of the Architectural Science Association
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have increased for the last three consecutive years in Australia, and this directly threatens our ability to meet our 2030 GHG emission reduction target under the Paris Agreement. Despite progress in reducing building-related GHG emissions, little focus has been placed on the indirect GHG emissions associated with building material manufacture, and construction. Cross laminated timber (CLT) is an alternative construction material that has been subject to numerous comparison studies, including many life cycle assessments (LCA). The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the recent literature on the environmental performance of CLT construction for Medium Density Residential (MDR) buildings and to identify knowledge gaps that require further research. Studies reviewed were sourced from web-based research engine, direct searches on global wood promotion websites, and the review was limited to peer reviewed publications. This review provides a useful basis for informing the exploration of important gaps in the current knowledge of how CLT buildings perform from an environmental perspective. This will ensure a comprehensive understanding of the environmental benefits of CLT construction and inform decision-making relating to structural material selection for optimising the life cycle GHG emissions performance of buildings.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Oregon Cross-Laminated Timber; An Economic Solution to Incorporating Timber into Cap and Trade

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2706
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Environmental Impact
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Lutje, Dakoata
Organization
University of Oregon
Publisher
University of Oregon
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Environmental Impact
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Cap and Trade
Greenhouse gas emissions
Environmental Impact
Research Status
Complete
Summary
As the state of Oregon begins to introduce a new cap and trade program to reduce the effects of its greenhouse gas emissions, the state has opted not to incorporate its largest greenhouse gas emitter; the timber industry. The decline of the timber industry after the 1980’s had lasting effects on disadvantaged communities, and state politicians have battled the cap and trade bill in fear of further deterioration of the timber industry. In this paper I aim to take an in depth look at the potential that CLT has in Oregon, how it can be promoted by the government, and what the environmental effects of it are. I found that, with the rise of mass timber construction and promotion of green building, the state has the opportunity to use revenues from its cap and trade program to economically incentivize CLT construction that can provide relief to economically stressed rural logging communities, all whole bolstering its efforts to better the environmental impact of an ever expanding construction industry.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Seeing the Forest and the Trees: Environmental Impacts of Cross-Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2702
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Kwok, Alison
Zalusky, Hannah
Rivera, Maria Isabel
Rasmussen, Linsday
McKay, Hannah
Publisher
Taylor&Francis Online
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Greenhouse gas emissions
Embodied Carbon
Embodied Energy
Life Cycle
Research Status
Complete
Series
Technology
Architecture + Design
Summary
With advances in wood product development and building code acceptance, mass timber structural systems have become viable alternatives to steel and concrete structural systems (Post 2015). These mass timber systems have environmental benefits, such as carbon sequestration ability and lower greenhouse gas emissions than steel and concrete systems. How can mass timber materials such as cross-laminated timber (CLT) reduce the environmental impacts of buildings, and how certain is this reduction? In order to truly answer this question, environmental impact assessments of CLT and other wood materials must first address variation and uncertainty in forest management and biogenic carbon accounting.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Wood Cityscapes: Mass Timber Office Building

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2300
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Design and Systems
Cost
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Hovhannisyan, Mariam
Publisher
University of Washington
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Cost
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Office Buildings
Mid-Rise
Cost
Schedule
Greenhouse gas emissions
Prototype
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Most office building construction relies on steel and concrete for mid-high rise office building applications. The primary goal of this thesis is to understand the implications of CLT and mass timber construction systems for mid-high rise office buildings in Seattle by developing a prototypical office building located on a specific site. This research thesis will focus on comparing this prototypical mass timber office building design to the same/similar design using industry standard construction materials for Seattle. The criteria for comparison will include code, cost, schedule and greenhouse gas emissions.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

9 records – page 1 of 1.