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7 records – page 1 of 1.

Checking in CLT Panels: An Exploratory Study

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2625
Year of Publication
2011
Topic
Moisture
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Casilla, Romulo
Lum, Conroy
Pirvu, Ciprian
Wang, Brad
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2011
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Moisture
Keywords
Panels
Testing Methods
Surface Checks
Moisture Content
Gaps
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
A study was conducted with the primary objective of gathering information for the development of a protocol for evaluating the surface quality of cross-laminated timber (CLT) products. The secondary objectives were to examine the effect of moisture content (MC) reduction on the development of surface checks and gaps, and find ways of minimizing the checking problems in CLT panels. The wood materials used for the CLT samples were rough-sawn Select grade Hem-Fir boards 25 x 152 mm (1 x 6 inches). Polyurethane was the adhesive used. The development of checks and gaps were evaluated after drying at two temperature levels at ambient relative humidity (RH). The checks and gaps, as a result of drying to 6% to 10% MC from an initial MC of 13%, occurred randomly depending upon the characteristics of the wood and the manner in which the outer laminas were laid up in the panel. Suggestions are made for minimizing checking and gap problems in CLT panels. The checks and gaps close when the panels are exposed to higher humidity. Guidelines were proposed for the development of a protocol for classifying CLT panels into appearance grades in terms of the severity of checks and gaps. The grades can be based on the estimated dimensions of the checks and gaps, their frequency, and the number of laminas in which they appear.
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Closed-form Solutions for Predicting the Thick Elastic Plate Behavior of CLT and Timber Panels with Gaps

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1295
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Franzoni, Lorenzo
Lebée, Arthur
Lyon, Florent
Forêt, Gilles
Publisher
ScienceDirect
Year of Publication
2018
Country of Publication
Netherlands
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Elastic Behavior
Gaps
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Engineering Structures
Summary
In a former paper by the authors [1], the elastic behavior of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) and timber panels having periodic gaps between lateral lamellae has been analyzed. A thick plate homogenization scheme based on Finite Elements computations has been applied. The predicted behavior was in agreement with experimental results. In this paper, simplified closed-form solutions are derived in order to avoid FE modeling. Both cases of narrow gaps of CLT panels and wide gaps of innovative lightweight panels are investigated. CLT and timber panels with gaps are modeled as a space frame of beams connected with wooden blocks. The contribution of both beams and blocks to the panel’s mechanical response is taken into account, leading to closed-form expressions for predicting the panel’s stiffnesses and maximum longitudinal and rolling shear stresses. The derived closed-form solutions are in agreement with the reference FE results and they can be used for practical design purposes.
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Elastic Behavior of Cross Laminated Timber and Timber Panels with Regular Gaps: Thick-Plate Modeling and Experimental Validation

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1341
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Franzoni, Lorenzo
Lebée, Arthur
Lyon, Florent
Forêt, Gilles
Publisher
ScienceDirect
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
Netherlands
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Homogenization
Gaps
Elastic Behavior
Bending Stiffness
Thick Plates
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Engineering Structures
Summary
In the present paper, the influence of periodic gaps between lamellas of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) on the panel’s elastic behavior is analyzed by means of a periodic homogenization scheme for thick plates having periodic geometry. Both small gaps, due to the fabrication process of not-gluing lateral lamellas, and wider gaps are investigated. The results obtained with the periodic homogenization scheme are compared to existing closed-form solutions and available experimental data. It appears that the plate bending stiffness can be well predicted with both homogenization and simplified methods, while only the homogenization approach is in agreement with the experimental in-plane and out-of-plane shear behavior. The influence of several properties of CLT lay-up on the mechanical response is pointed out as well.
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Evaluating Fire Performance of Nail-Laminated Timber: Influence of Gaps

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2093
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Fire
Material
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Ranger, Lindsay
Dagenais, Christian
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2019
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Charring
Gaps
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The objective of this work is to generate fire performance data for NLT assemblies to address gaps in technical knowledge. This project aims to study how the size of gaps between NLT boards might affect charring of an assembly and its overall fire performance. This research will support designers and builders in the use of mass timber assemblies in larger and taller buildings, by ensuring fire safe designs.
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Influence of Moisture Content and Gaps on the Withdrawal Resistance of Self Tapping Screws in CLT

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue299
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Moisture
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Silva, Catarina
Ringhofer, Andreas
Branco, Jorge
Lourenço, Paulo
Schickhofer, Gerhard
Organization
National Congress of Experimental Mechanics
Year of Publication
2014
Country of Publication
Portugal
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Moisture
Keywords
Self-Tapping Screws
Withdrawal
Gaps
Moisture Content
Language
English
Conference
9th National Congress of Experimental Mechanics
Research Status
Complete
Notes
October 15-17, 2014, Aveiro, Portugal
Summary
Self-tapping screws (STS) have been proclaimed as the easiest solution for structural timber connections, in special for cross laminated timber (CLT) constructions. In order to understand deeply the composite model “CLT-STS”, an experimental campaign which comprised 270 withdrawal tests was carried out. Maximum withdrawal load capacity of self-tapping screws inserted in plane side of a three layered CLT panel was evaluated considering three main parameters: moisture levels of CLT (i), number of gaps (ii) and the width of gaps (iii). Regarding (i), connections were tested with CLT at 8%, 12% and 18% of moisture content. Concerning (ii) and (iii), different test configurations with 1, 2 and 3 gaps, with 0 or 4mm, were tested. The influences of moisture content and number of gaps were modeled. Further a correlation between test results and a prediction model developed by Uibel and Blaß (2007) has been proposed.
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The Influences of Moisture Content Variation, Number and Width of Gaps on the Withdrawal Resistance of Self Tapping Screws inserted in Cross Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1359
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Connections
Moisture
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Silva, Catarina
Branco, Jorge
Ringhofer, Andreas
Lourenço, Paulo
Schickhofer, Gerhard
Publisher
ScienceDirect
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Netherlands
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Connections
Moisture
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Withdrawal Tests
Withdrawal Resistance
Self-Tapping Screws
Moisture Content
Gaps
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Construction and Building Materials
Summary
A large experimental campaign comprised of 470 withdrawal tests was carried out, aiming to quantify the withdrawal resistance of self-tapping screws (STS) inserted in the side face of cross laminated timber (CLT) elements. In order to deeply understand the “CLT-STS” composite model, the experimental tests considered two main parameters: (i) simple and cyclic changes on moisture content (MC) and (ii) number and width of gaps. Regarding (i), three individual groups of test specimens were stabilized with 8%, 12% and 18% of moisture content and one group was submitted to a six month RH cycle (between 30% and 90% RH). Concerning (ii), different test configurations with 0 (REF), 1, 2 and 3 gaps, and widths equal to 0mm (GAP0) or 4mm (GAP4), were tested. The influences of MC and number of gaps were modeled by means of least square method. Moreover, a revision of a prediction model developed by Uibel and Blaß (2007) was proposed. The main findings of the experimental campaign were: the decrease of withdrawal resistance for specimens tested with MC=18% in most configurations; the unexpected increase of withdrawal resistance as the number of gaps with 0mm increased; and, the surprising increase of withdrawal resistance for REF specimens submitted to the RH cycle.
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Summary of the Fire Protection Foundation Report - Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue111
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Market and Adoption
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Barber, David
Gerard, Robert
Publisher
SpringerOpen
Year of Publication
2015
Country of Publication
United Kingdom
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Market and Adoption
Fire
Keywords
Research Priorities
Gaps in Knowledge
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Fire Science Reviews
Summary
With new engineered timber products such as cross-laminated timber becoming more prevalent, this study evaluated the current knowledge of tall timber construction to identify gaps in knowledge, and where if fulfilled, will provide a better understanding of the potential fire safety performance of tall timber buildings. The study identified a number of knowledge gaps, of which most were related directly to the new technology of engineered timber products that have resulted from the use of CLT. These included system-level fire testing, use of composite assemblies, CLT char fall-off and construction fire safety. The study concluded that the priority for future research should target three areas of research, being the contribution of exposed timber to room fires; connections between timber components and timber composite assemblies; and penetrations for building services.
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7 records – page 1 of 1.