Cross-laminated timber (CLT) slabs in residential buildings need additional weight, e.g., in the form of screeds or gravel layers, to fulfill the criterion for the highest impact-sound class. The additional mass is, however, not exploited for the load bearing behavior, but adds additional weight and leads to an increased height of the floor construction. In this study, such a CLT floor construction with a construction height of 380 mm is compared with a composite slab consisting of a CLT plate with a concrete layer on top with a floor construction height of 330 mm. The timber concrete composite (TCC) slab has a different creep behavior than the CLT slab. Thus, the development of the time-dependent deflections over the service life are of interest. A straightforward hybrid approach is developed, which exploits advanced multiscale-based material models for the individual composite layers and a standardized structural analysis method for the structural slab to model its linear creep behavior. The introduced approach allows to investigate load redistribution between the layers of the composite structure and the evolution of the deflection of the slab during the service life. The investigated slab types show a similar deflection after 50 years, while the development of the deflections over time are different. The CLT slab has a smaller overall stiffness at the beginning but a smaller decrease in stiffness over time than the investigated TCC slab.
Cross laminated timber (CLT), as a structural plate-like timber product, has been established as a load bearing product for walls, floor and roof elements. In a bending situation due to the transverse shear flexibility of the crossing layers, the warping of the cross section follows a zigzag pattern which should be considered in the calculation model. The Refined Zigzag Theory (RZT) can fulfill this requirement in a very simple and efficient way. The RZT, founded in 2007 by A. Tessler (NASA Langley Research Center), M. Di Sciuva and M. Gherlone (Politecnico Torino) is a very robust and accurate analysis tool, which can handle the typical zigag warping of the cross section by introducing only one additional kinematic degree of freedom in case of plane beams and two more in case of biaxial bending of plates. Thus, the RZT-kinematics is able to reflect the specific and local stress behaviour near concentrated loads in combination with a warping constraint, while most other theories do not. A comparison is made with different methods of calculation, as the modified Gamma-method, the Shear Analogy method (SA) and the First Order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT). For a test example of a two-span continuous beam, an error estimation concerning the maximum bending stress is presented depending on the slenderness L/h and the width of contact area at the intermediate support. A stability investigation shows that FSDT provides sufficiently accurate results if the ratio of bending and shear stiffness is in a range as stated in the test example. It is shown that by a simple modification in the determination of the zigzag function, the scope can be extended to beams with arbitrary non-rectangular cross section. This generalization step considerably improves the possibilities for the application of RZT. Furthermore, beam structures with interlayer slip can easily be treated. So the RZT is very well suited to analyze all kinds, of shear-elastic structural element like CLT-plate, timber-concrete composite structure or doweled beam in an accurate and unified way.
This paper deals with the influence of the rolling shear deformation on the flexural behavior of CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber) panels. The morphological configuration of the panels, which consist of orthogonal overlapped layers of boards, led to a particular shear behavior when subjected to out-of-plane loadings: the low value of the shear modulus in orthogonal to grain direction (i.e., rolling shear modulus) gives rise to significant shear deformations in the transverse layers of boards, whose grains direction is perpendicular with respect to the tangential stresses direction. This produces increases of deflections and vibrations under service loads, creating discomfort for the users. Different analytical methods accounting for this phenomenon have been already developed and presented in literature. Comparative analyses among the results provided by some of these methods have been carried out in the present paper and the influence of the rolling shear deformations, with reference to different span-to-depth (L/H) ratios investigated. Moreover, the analytical results have also been compared with those obtained by more accurate 2D finite element models. The results show that, at the service limit states, the influence of the rolling shear can be significant when the aspect ratios became less than L/H = 30, and the phenomenon must be accurately considered in both deflection and stress analysis of CLT floors. Contrariwise, in the case of higher aspect ratios (slender panels), the deflections and stresses can be evaluated neglecting the rolling shear influence, assuming the layers of boards as fully-connected.
Due to the increasing environmental awareness, the transition pace to renewable materials has increased, and the use of timber in construction is no exception. However, using timber in high rise building applications comes with structural challenges, e.g dynamic issues originating from timber being lightweight compared to conventional building materials. Some of the structural challenges with timber can be resolved by the implementation of Timber Concrete Composites (TCC), which increases the effective bending stiffness by adding a concrete layer connected to the underlying timber floor. Furthermore, the higher self-weight of concrete contributes to improved dynamic performance.
Despite the fact that the TCC floor is a versatile and quite common structural design solution in Europe, the TCC knowledge in the Swedish construction industry is limited. The main scope of the thesis is to raise this knowledge of TCC by studying the structural behavior and develop applicable design methods. Both analytical design methods and FE-modelling are addressed. The content is limited to TCC floors with a 5-layer Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) section, with use of notches or screws as shear connectors.
In CLT design, the Gamma method is commonly used and applicable to a CLT layup up to 5 layers. This method can, by a slight modification, be applicable for TCC sections with a 5-layer CLT as well. The concrete layer on top is regarded as an additional longitudinal layer, flexibly connected to the CLT section. The Equivalent gamma method and the Extended gamma method are two modified versions of the conventional Gamma method, valid for TCC floors with 5-layer CLT sections. Each method determines the effective bending stiffness accurately, compared to FE-modelling and laboratory test results. The Extended gamma method has a more solid theoretical base compared to the Equivalent gamma method, and is considered the recommended design method. The simplified methodology of the Equivalent gamma method is theoretically questionable, hence its recommended use is for preliminary calculations only.
The following concluding remarks can be drawn from the analysis of the structural behavior of TCC floors:
- The shear connectors should be concentrated to areas of high shear flow, i.e. close to support, for optimal structural performance.
- An increased ratio of timber in the longitudinal, load-bearing direction of the CLT section increases the effective bending stiffness of the TCC.
- The concrete layer increases the effective bending stiffness due to the high Young's modulus. However, the high density of concrete entails a thin concrete layer thickness to achieve a light-weight and structural efficient TCC system, and the decisive optimisation factor is the ratio of mass-to-effective bending stiffness, m/EI.