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9 records – page 1 of 1.

Assessing The Flammability of Mass Timber Components: A Review

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue87
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Mehaffey, Jim
Dagenais, Christian
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
National Building Code of Canada
Flame Spread
Model
Cone Calorimeter Testing
Buildings
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This report begins with a discussion of the mechanisms of flame spread over combustible materials while describing the NBCC prescriptive solutions that establish the acceptable fire performance of interior finish materials. It is noted that while flame spread ratings do give an indication of the fire performance of products in building fires, the data generated are not useful as input to fire models that predict fire growth in buildings. The cone calorimeter test is then described in some detail. Basic data generated in the cone calorimeter on the time to ignition and heat release rates are shown to be fundamental properties of wood products which can be useful as input to fire models for predicting fire growth in buildings. The report concludes with the recommendation that it would be useful to run an extensive set of cone calorimeter tests on SCL, glue-laminated timber and CLT products. The fundamental data could be most useful for validating models for predicting flame spread ratings of massive timber products and useful as input to comprehensive computer fire models that predict the course of fire in buildings. It is also argued that the cone calorimeter would be a useful tool in assessing fire performance during product development and for quality control purposes.
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Evaluating Fire Performance of Nail-Laminated Timber: Surface Flammability

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2094
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Fire
Design and Systems
Material
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Ranger, Lindsay
Dagenais, Christian
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2019
Format
Report
Material
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Design and Systems
Keywords
Flame Spread
Fire Safety
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The objective of this project is to establish fundamental fire performance data for the design and specification of NLT assemblies; this project specially addresses determining FSRs for NLT. The goal of this project is to confirm that NLT, when used as a mass timber element, has a lower FSR than standard thickness SPF boards when tested individually and flatwise. The project also considers how the surface profiles, design details, and the direction of an assembly might influence flame spread. This includes the evaluation of typical architectural features, such as a 'fluted' profile.
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Fire Resistance Characteristics of Glued Laminated Timber Manufactured from Malaysian Tropical Hardwood Timber (Malagangai): Charring Rate and Fire Classification

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1708
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Fire
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Ahmad, Zakiah
Aicher, Simon
Bakri, Zulhazmee
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Charring Rate
Malagangai
Flame Spread
Smoke Production
Burning Droplets
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 4471-4476
Summary
This paper reports the investigation on the one-dimensional charring rate of glued laminated timber manufactured from Malaysian Tropical Hardwood namely Malagangai (density, 800 kg/m 3 ). The fire test was conducted at SP Wood Technology in Stockholm in accordance with EN 13381-7:2014 for determination of charring rate. The reaction-to-fire tests for fire classifications in terms of flame spread, smoke production and burning droplets were investigated at University of Stuttgart, Germany in accordance with the procedures given in EN 13 501-1 : 2010. The results show that the charring rate of glulam Malagangai is 0.6 mm/min. The fire behaviour of the glulam is in Class C with medium smoke generation and very little burning droplets.
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Large-Scale Enclosure Fire Experiments Adopting CLT Slabs with Different Types of Polyurethane Adhesives: Genesis and Preliminary Findings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2963
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Hopkin, Danny
Wegrzynski, Wojciech
Spearpoint, Michael
Fu, Ian
Krenn, Harald
Sleik, Tim
Gorska, Carmen
Stapf, Gordian
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Adhesive
Bond-line Failure
Char Fall-off
Polyurethane
Auto-Extinction
Flame Spread
Research Status
Complete
Series
Fire
Summary
This paper provides understanding of the fire performance of exposed cross-laminated-timber (CLT) in large enclosures. An office-type configuration has been represented by a 3.75 by 7.6 by 2.4 m high enclosure constructed of non-combustible blockwork walls, with a large opening on one long face. Three experiments are described in which propane-fuelled burners created a line fire that impinged on different ceiling types. The first experiment had a non-combustible ceiling lining in which the burners were set to provide flames that extended approximately halfway along the underside of the ceiling. Two further experiments used exposed 160 mm thick (40-20-40-20-40 mm) loaded CLT panels with a standard polyurethane adhesive between lamella in one experiment and a modified polyurethane adhesive in the other. Measurements included radiative heat flux to the ceiling and the floor, temperatures within the depth of the CLT and the mass loss of the panels. Results show the initial peak rate of heat release with the exposed CLT was up to three times greater when compared with the non-combustible lining. As char formed, this stabilised at approximately one and a half times that of the non-combustible lining. Premature char fall-off (due to bond-line failure) was observed close to the burners in the CLT using standard polyurethane adhesive. However, both exposed CLT ceiling experiments underwent auto-extinction of flaming combustion once the burners were switched off.
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A New Approach to Classify the Degree of Combustibility of Materials

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2257
Topic
Fire
Organization
Université Laval
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Fire Safety
Combustion Properties
Heat Flux
Numerical Modeling
Cone Calorimeter Testing
Flame Spread
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Project contact is Christian Dagenais at Université Laval
Summary
The use of materials in a building is traditionally determined from its combustibility (via ULC S114 or ULC S135) and by its flame propagation index (via ULC S102). The ULC S102 Flame Spread Test, developed in 1943, has historically reduced risk through its method of classifying materials. However, this test does not provide quantitative information on the combustion properties of materials, such as heat flow. The latter is one of the most important variables in the development of a fire. Thus, a new approach would be preferable in order to review the classification of materials according to ULC S102 and ULC S135 (cone calorimeter). The objective of this project is to develop a new approach to classifying materials based on cone calorimeter test results. These results can subsequently be used in numerical modeling as part of a fire safety engineering design. A significant amount of cone calorimeter (ULC S135) testing of materials currently evaluated according to ULC S102 will be required.
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Surface Burning Characteristics of Glulam Decking

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue385
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Fire
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Decking
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Report
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Decking
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Flame Spread
Thermally Thick Solids
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The key objective of this study was to evaluate the surface burning characteristics (flame spread rating) of glued-laminated timber (glulam) decking in accordance with CAN/ULC S102 test method [1]. This is part of a test series aimed at evaluating the flame spread rating of mass timber components, such as cross-laminated timber (CLT) and structural somposite lumber (SCL). More specifically, this study is solely focused on mass timber assemblies that are thick enough to be treated theoretically as semi-infinite solids (thermally thick solids) as opposed to thermally-thin, which is typical of traditional combustible finish products. The tested specimen in this series meets the provisions related to "heavy timber construction", per paragraph 3.1.4.7 of Division B of the National Building Code of Canada.
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Surface Burning Characteristics of Massive Timber Assemblies

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue397
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Flame Spread
National Building Code of Canada
Research Status
Complete
Summary
In an objective to evaluate the surface burning characteristics of massive timber assemblies such as CLT and SCL, flame spread tests on massive timber assemblies have been conducted in accordance with ULC S102 test method. This study evaluated the flame spread of fully exposed massive timber specimens (i.e. untreated/uncoated) as well as the effect on flame spread by using intumescent coating with CLT. Test results provide low flame spread ratings when compared to those of common combustible interior finish materials provided in Appendix D-3 of NBCC. Specifically, the obtained flame spread ratings of 3-ply CLT assemblies of 105 mm in thickness are 35 and 25 for a fully exposed CLT (untreated) and for a CLT panel protected by intumescent coating respectively. Fully exposed SCL of 89 mm in thickness provided ratings of 35 and 75 for parallel strand lumber (PSL) and laminated strand lumber (LSL) respectively.
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Free
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Surface Burning Characteristics of V2 Stress Grade Cross-Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue398
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Flame Spread
National Building Code of Canada
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Advanced wood building systems form a significant market opportunity for use of wood in taller and larger buildings, which are currently required to be of non-combustible construction in accordance with provisions set forth in Part 3 of Division B of the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC). In order to evaluate the surface burning characteristics of massive timber assemblies, flame spread tests on CLT assemblies have been conducted in accordance with ULC S102 test method. Three series of 3-ply CLT panels of 99 mm in thickness, V2 stress grade as per ANSI/APA PRG-320 (i.e., manufactured with Spruce-Pine-Fir (SPF) lumber) have been evaluated for flame spread and smoke developed classification. Fully exposed CLT specimens (99 mm) provided much lower flame spread ratings (FSR of 40), when compared to thinner similar products.
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Surface Flammability and Flame-spread Ratings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2757
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Fire
Application
Walls
Ceilings
Floors
Organization
Canadian Wood Council
Year of Publication
2019
Format
Book/Guide
Application
Walls
Ceilings
Floors
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Flame Spread
Flame Spread Rating
Surface Flammability
National Building Code of Canada
Testing Methods
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The rate at which flame spreads on the exposed interior surfaces or a room or space can have an impact on the rate of fire growth within an area, especially if the materials of the exposed surfaces are highly flammable. Therefore, the National Building Code of Canada (NBC) regulates the surface flammability of any material that forms part of the interior surface of walls, ceilings and, in some cases, floors, in buildings. Based on a standard fire-test method, the NBC uses a rating system to quantify surface flammability that allows comparison of one material to another, and the ratings within that system are called flame-spread ratings (FSR).
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9 records – page 1 of 1.