Skip header and navigation

Refine Results By

82 records – page 1 of 9.

Fire Resistance of Structural Composite Lumber Products

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue790
Year of Publication
2006
Topic
Fire
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Author
White, Robert
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
Year of Publication
2006
Format
Report
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Char Rate
Fire Resistance
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Use of structural composite lumber products is increasing. In applications requiring a fire resistance rating, calculation procedures are used to obtain the fire resistance rating of exposed structural wood products. A critical factor in the calculation procedures is char rate for ASTM E 119 fire exposure. In this study, we tested 14 structural composite lumber products to determine char rate when subjected to the fire exposure of the standard fire resistance test. Char rate tests on 10 of the composite lumber products were also conducted in an intermediate-scale horizontal furnace. The National Design Specification/Technical Report 10 design procedure for calculating fire resistance ratings of exposed wood members can be used to predict failure times for members loaded in tension. Thirteen tests were conducted in which composite lumber products were loaded in tension as they were subjected to the standard fire exposure of ASTM E 119. Charring rates, observed failure times in tension tests, and deviations from predicted failure times of the structural composite lumber products were within expected range of results for sawn lumber and glued laminated timbers.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Predicting the Fire Resistance of Cross-Laminated Timber Assemblies

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1865
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Wood Building Systems
Author
Craft, Steven
Desjardins, Richard
Bénichou, Noureddine
Organization
National Research Council of Canada
Publisher
National Research Council Canada. Construction
Year of Publication
2012
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Fire Resistance
Assembly
Panels
Full-Scale Fire Test
Full-Scale
Research Status
Complete
Summary
There is growing interest from the Canadian wood products industry to produce and use cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels in construction. Because this is a new product in North America, there is a need to demonstrate that the product meets various performance attributes such as structural resistance, sound transmission and fire resistance. This research aims to address two primary objectives which will support the North American adoption of CLT. First, a generic calculation method for determining the fire-resistance of CLT assemblies is needed to enable producers to manufacture a number of different configurations of panels without the need to run a large number of full-scale fire tests. Second, the CLT assemblies chosen for testing have been identified as the most likely configurations to be used thereby providing test data to support the claims of fire-resistance to help satisfy the authority having jurisdiction.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

The Fire Performance of Post-Tensioned Timber Beams

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue159
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Fire
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Beams
Author
Spellman, Phillip
Organization
University of Canterbury
Year of Publication
2012
Format
Thesis
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Beams
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Failure Mechanisms
Full Scale
Post-Tensioning
Steel Tendons
Fire Resistance
Box Beams
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The focus of this research was to investigate the fire performance of post-tensioned timber beams. This was completed through a series of full-scale furnace tests, and the development of a fire resistance design method. Previous research has focused on the seismic performance and gravity frame performance of post-tensioned timber, both of which yielded promising results. There is however a commonly perceived increase in fire risk with timber building, particularly multi-storey timber buildings, and the fire performance of post-tensioned timber had not previously been investigated.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Modelling the Fire Performance of Structural Timber Floors

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue212
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Design and Systems
Fire
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Floors
Author
O'Neill, James
Abu, Anthony
Carradine, David
Moss, Peter
Buchanan, Andrew
Year of Publication
2012
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Floors
Topic
Design and Systems
Fire
Keywords
Failure Mechanisms
Finite Element Model
Fire Resistance
Thermo-mechanical
Full Scale
Conference
International Conference on Structures in Fire
Research Status
Complete
Notes
June 6-8, 2012, Zurich, Switzerland
Summary
This paper describes numerical modelling to predict the fire resistance of engineered timber floor systems. The floor systems under investigation are timber composite floors (various timber joist and box floor cross sections), and timber-concrete composite floors. The paper describes 3D numerical modelling of the floor systems using finite element software, carried out as a sequential thermo-mechanical analysis. Experimental testing of these floor assemblies is also being undertaken to calibrate and validate the models, with a number of full scale tests to determine the failure mechanisms for each floor type and assess fire damage to the respective system components. The final outcome of this research will be simplified design methods for calculating the fire resistance of a wide range of engineered timber floor systems.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Preliminary CLT Fire Resistance Testing Report

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue377
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2012
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Full Scale
Fire Resistance
Type X Gypsum Board
Thermocouples
Research Status
Complete
Summary
FPInnovations is involved in a large research project regarding CLT construction. One objective of this research is the creation of a design methodology for calculating the fire-resistance of CLT assemblies/construction. This methodology will foster the design of fire-safe buildings of wood or hybrid construction. In order to establish such calculation methods, a series of experimental tests has been undertaken. A total of eight full-scale CLT fire resistance tests have been conducted at the NRC fire laboratory where the panels were subject to the standard ULC S101 [1] fire exposure. The series consisted of three wall and five floor tests. Each test was unique using panels with a different number of plies and varying thicknesses. Some of the assemblies were protected using CGC Sheetrock® FireCode® Core Type X gypsum board while others were left unprotected.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Mechanical Behaviour of Finger Joints at Elevated Temperatures

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue612
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Fire
Mechanical Properties
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Frangi, Andrea
Bertocchi, Marco
Clauß, Sebastian
Niemz, Peter
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Year of Publication
2012
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Fire
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Fire Resistance
Tensile tests
Bending Tests
Finger Joints
Research Status
Complete
Series
Wood Science and Technology
Summary
Finger joints are commonly used to produce engineered wood products like glued laminated timber beams. Although comprehensive research has been conducted on the structural behaviour of finger joints at ambient temperature, there is very little information about the structural behaviour at elevated temperature. A comprehensive research project on the fire resistance of bonded timber elements is currently ongoing at the ETH Zurich. The aim of the research project is the development of simplified design models for the fire resistance of bonded structural timber elements taking into account the behaviour of the adhesive used at elevated temperature. The paper presents the results of a first series of tensile and bending tests on specimens with finger joints pre-heated in an oven. The tests were carried out with different adhesives that fulfil current approval criteria for the use in loadbearing timber components. The results showed substantial differences in temperature dependant strength reduction and failure between the different adhesives tested. Thus, the structural behaviour of finger joints at elevated temperature is strongly influenced by the behaviour of the adhesive used for bonding and may govern the fire design of engineered wood products like glued laminated timber beams.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Report of Testing Cross Laminated Timber Panels for Compliance with CAN/ULC-S101 Standard Methods of Fire Endurance Tests of Building Construction and Materials: Loadbearing 3-Ply CLT Wall with Attached Wood Frame Partition

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue746
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Organization
Canadian Wood Council
Year of Publication
2012
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Fire Resistance
Load Bearing Walls
Mineral Wool Insulation
Type X Gypsum Board
Panels
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Intertek Testing Services NA, Inc. (Intertek) has conducted testing for the Canadian Wood Council, on Cross-Laminated Timber Panels, to evaluate their fire resistance. Testing was conducted in accordance with the applicable requirements, and following the standard methods, of CAN/ULC-S101 Standard Methods of Fire Endurance Tests of Building Construction and Materials, fourth edition, July 2007. This evaluation took place on December 30, 2011.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Fire Loads and Design Fires for Mid-Rise Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1587
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Fire
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Ocran, Naki
Organization
Carleton University
Year of Publication
2012
Format
Thesis
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Residential
Non-Residential
Mid-Rise
Heat Release Rate
Fire Loads
Fire Resistance
CUrisk
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This study which involves the development of fire loads and design fires for residential and non-residential mid-rise buildings is part of NEWBuildS’ “Rationalization o f Life Safety - Code Requirements fo r Mid-rise Buildings” project. The project is focused on analysing the code requirements that relate to fire resistance and the use of automatic sprinklers for mid-rise buildings built with combustible or non-combustible construction. The ultimate goal of the project is to come up with alternative solutions and, potentially, trigger changes in the code requirements for mid-rise buildings. A review, compilation, and analysis of fire load survey data was conducted from available literature for residential and office buildings. A web survey of floor areas was also conducted for floor areas of mid-rise buildings. Fire loads and fuel packages for midrise buildings were developed based on previous surveys as well as the web survey. The fire load data in conjunction with statistical data was used to select fire scenarios from which design fire scenarios were chosen. The fire characteristics of the selected fuel packages, such as heat release rate, and production of toxic gases, were analyzed using the two-zone fire risk analysis model, CUrisk, in order to develop appropriate design fires for mid-rise buildings.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Fire Performance Requirements of Non-Load-Bearing Wood-Frame In-Fill Walls in Concrete/Steel Hybrid Buildings. Part 1 - Literature Review of International Building Code

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2621
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Fire
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Walls
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Lu, Ling
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Report
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Walls
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Fire-Retardant-Treatment (FRT)
Fire Resistance Rating
Building Code
Construction
Exterior Wall
Non-Loadbearing
Concrete
Steel
Mid-Rise
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Related sections in the International Building Code (IBC) were reviewed regarding use of wood components in non-combustible buildings, and light-frame wood buildings or heavy timber buildings greater than 4-storeys in height. The highlights of this review are: a) Fire-retardant-treated (FRT) wood can be used in partitions when the required fire-resistance rating is not more than 2 hours. This includes all types and occupancy groups of Types I and II construction; b) FRT wood can be used in non-bearing exterior walls in Type I, II, III and IV construction; c) Wood components can be used in interior walls for Type III and IV construction; d) Wood components can be used in both interior and exterior walls for Type V construction. When a sprinkler system is installed according to NFPA 13 [1], it is possible to build a light-frame wood building or heavy timber building over 4-storeys according to the following provisions: a) Type IIIA 6-storey light-frame wood buildings using FRT wood for exterior walls for Occupancy group B (Business), H-4, and 5-storey light-frame wood buildings for Occupancy group F-2, H-3, I-1(Institutional), R (Residential), S-2; b) Type IIIB 5-storey light-frame wood buildings using FRT wood for exterior walls for Occupancy group R; c) Type IV (HT) 6-storeys timber buildings for Occupancy group B, F-2, H-4 and S-2; d) Type IV (HT) 5-storeys timber buildings for Occupancy group F-1, H-3, I-1, R, S-1 and U.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Fire Performance Requirements of Non-Load-Bearing Wood-Frame In-Fill Walls in Concrete/Steel Hybrid Buildings. Part 2 - Review of the National Building Code of Canada

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2622
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Fire
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Walls
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Lu, Ling
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Report
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Walls
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Non-Loadbearing
Fire Resistance
Concrete
Steel
Building Code
Fire Performance
Exterior Wall
Sprinklers
Mid-Rise
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This project evaluates the National Building Codes of Canada (NBCC) clauses relevant to fire performance and performance requirements of non-load-bearing wood-frame in-fill walls in concrete/steel hybrid buildings. Related clauses in NBCC are reviewed regarding the use of wood components and non-load bearing wall systems in non-combustible buildings. The highlights of this review are: § An exterior non-loadbearing wall assembly with combustible components is allowed in non-combustible construction if: a) Building height is not more than 3 storeys or has a sprinkler system throughout ; b) The interior surfaces of the wall assembly are protected by a thermal barrier ; and c) The wall assembly satisfied the testing criteria for CAN/ULC S134 ; § Combustible interior wall finishes, other than foamed plastics, are allowed in non-combustible construction if the thickness is not greater than 25 mm and their flame spread rating (FSR) is not more than 150 ; § Combustible insulation, other than foamed plastics, is allowed in non-combustible construction if the flame-spread rating not more than 25 ; § Combustible insulation with a FSR not less than 25 and not more than 500 is allowed in exterior and interior walls of non-combustible construction if the building is non-sprinklered and not more than 18 m or sprinklered and protected by a thermal barrier ; § There are no obstacles for using wood-frame in-fill wall systems for interior partition walls in hybrid buildings: a) For non-sprinklered buildings not greater than 3 storeys or a floor area not greater than 600 m2 ; b) For sprinklered buildings. § Non-combustible construction allows combustible elements in partition walls in the following instances: a) Solid lumber partitions located in a fire compartment area are permitted in a non-sprinklered floor area not greater than 600 m2 with restrictions ; b) Solid lumber partitions not less than 38 mm thick and partitions that contain wood framing are permitted with restrictions. § Combustible cladding can be used under the following circumstances: a) When a wall assembly with exposing building face is between 10 to 25% tested by CAN/ULC-S134 and complies with Article 3.1.5.5 ; b) When a wall assembly with exposing building face is between 25 to 50%, is sprinklered throughout, installed on a gypsum board sheathing, and has a FSR not more than 25 (with restrictions) ; c) When a wall assembly with exposing building face is between 50 to 100%, cladding can be combustible for group A, B, C, D, E, F. § When a building is required to be of non-combustible construction, combustible elements are limited to the requirements in Subsection 3.1.5 on non-combustible construction ; § When comparing the NBCC with the International Building Code (IBC), the IBC is more in favour of using FRT wood frame in-fill walls with one more storey.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

82 records – page 1 of 9.