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20 records – page 1 of 2.

An Application of the CEN/TC350 Standards to an Energy and Carbon LCA of Timber Used in Construction, and the Effect of End-of-Life Scenarios

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2376
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Energy Performance
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Symons, Katie
Moncaster, Alice
Symons, Digby
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Energy Performance
Keywords
Embodied Carbon
Life-Cycle Assessment
Built Environment
End of Life
LCA
Europe
Conference
Australian Life Cycle Assessment Society conference
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The use of timber construction products and their environmental impacts is growing in Europe. This paper examines the LCA approach adopted in the European CEN/TC350 standards, which are expected to improve the comparability and availability of Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs). The embodied energy and carbon (EE and EC) of timber products is discussed quantitatively, with a case study of the Forte building illustrating the significance of End-of-Life (EoL) impacts. The relative importance of timber in the context of all construction materials is analysed using a new LCA tool, Butterfly. The tool calculates EE and EC at each life cycle stage, and results show that timber products are likely to account for the bulk of the EoL impacts for a typical UK domestic building.
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Energy and Environmental Performance of Multi-Story Apartment Buildings Built in Timber Construction Using Passive House Principles

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1203
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Cost
Author
Kildsgaard, Ivana
Jarnehammar, Anna
Widheden, Anna
Wall, Maria
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Journal Article
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Cost
Keywords
Energy Efficiency
Europe
Multi-Story
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
This paper presents energy and environmental performance analyses, a study of summer indoor temperatures and occupant behavior for an eight story apartment building, with the goal to combine high energy efficiency with low environmental impact, at a reasonable cost. Southern Portvakten building is built with prefabricated timber elements using passive house principles in the North European climate. Energy performance was analyzed through parametric studies, as well as monitored energy data, and complemented with analysis of occupant behavior during one year. Results show that airtight, low-energy apartment buildings can be successfully built with prefabricated timber elements in a cold climate. The monitored total energy use was 47.6 kWh/m2, excluding household electricity (revised to a normal year), which is considerably lower than of a standard building built today in Sweden—90 kWh/m2. However, the occupancy level was low during the analyzed year, which affects the energy use compared to if the building had been fully occupied. Environmental analysis shows that the future challenges lie in lowering the household and common electricity use, as well as in improving the choices of materials. More focus should also lie on improving occupant behavior and finding smart solar shading solutions for apartment buildings.
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Design Models for CLT Shearwalls and Assemblies Based on Connection Properties

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue369
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Connections
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Popovski, Marjan
Gavric, Igor
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Connections
Keywords
Lateral Loads
Analytical Model
North America
Europe
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The work presented in this report is a continuation of the FPInnovations' research project on determining the performance of the CLT as a structural system under lateral loads. As currently there are no standardized methods for determining the resistance of CLT shearwalls under lateral loads, the design approaches are left at the descretion of the designers. The most common approach that is currently used in Europe and North America assumes that the resistance of CLT walls is a simple summary of the shear resistance of all connectors at the bottom of the wall. In this report some new analytical models for predicting the design (factored) resistance of CLT walls under lateral loads were developed based on connection properties. These new models were then evaluated for their consistency along with their models that are currently used in North America and in Europe.
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Hardwood Glulams - Emerging Timber Products of Superior Mechanical Properties

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue523
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Aicher, Simon
Christian, Zachary
Dill-Langer, Gerhard
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Europe
Germany
Strength
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 10-14, 2014, Quebec City, Canada
Summary
The paper reports on the recent state of hardwood glulams technically approved in Europe and/or Germany for load bearing structures. Build-ups, mechanical properties, manufacturing specifics and issues related to strength equations including size effects are discussed. The high potential of this emerging structural timber product group is herein also revealed. The driving forces for an increased attention in Europe towards glued laminated products made of hardwoods stems from several facts, the most important being: i) noticeable shortage and rapidly rising costs for softwoods, ii) high stocks of structurally so far not used hardwood resources in Central and Southern Europe and iii) a continuous shift in re-afforestation policies towards hardwoods due to better aptness of several broadleaf species versus soil and climate conditions.
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Measuring-Up In Timber: A Critical Perspective on Mid- and High-Rise Timber Building Design

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue607
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Design and Systems
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Fleming, Patrick
Smith, Simon
Ramage, Michael
Publisher
Cambridge University Press
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Mid-Rise
High-Rise
Europe
Research Status
Complete
Series
arq: Architectural Research Quarterly
Summary
Architects, engineers and researchers alike often cite practical reasons for building with wood. Since the development of curved glulam beams and columns over a century ago, the widespread use of massive structural timber elements has allowed architects and engineers to design and build in wood with unprecedented speed and scale. Moreover, rising concerns of climate change and the carbon-dioxide emissions associated with construction encourage the use of wood as a viable alternative to steel and concrete, due to CO2 sequestration in trees. In mid- and high-rise buildings, the current shift from steel and concrete towards massive structural timber elements like glulam, laminated-veneer lumber (LVL) and cross-laminated timber (CLT) is evident in a number of recently completed timber buildings in Europe, ranging from seven to nine storeys. Several speculative design proposals have also been made for ‘timber towers’ of thirty, fortytwo and even sixty-five storeys, recognising that designing with massive structural timber elements in high-rise buildings is still in its infancy. This paper offers a new perspective on building with wood at this scale, beyond carbon sequestrationand construction.
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Fire Safety of Bonded Structural Timber Elements

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1139
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Fire
Connections
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Klippel, Michael
Organization
ETH Zurich
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Thesis
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Fire
Connections
Keywords
Finger-Jointed
Adhesives
Fire Resistance
Europe
Zero-Strength Layer
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The development of polyurethane (PUR) adhesives for engineered wood products started in Switzerland in 1985. Those adhesives satisfied the need for formaldehyde free adhesives, which is mainly attributed to health and environmental reasons. However, due to new requirements concerning the high temperature resistance of adhesives, especially in North America, newly developed adhesives are basically banned from the market, and adhesive manufacturers face a new barrier to approve their new adhesive technologies on the market. The work presented in this thesis clarifies the influence of adhesives on the fire design of glued-laminated timber beams. Additionally, clear scientifically based requirements are identified, which should be met by adhesives used in glued-laminated timber beams in case of fire. In this thesis, twelve different adhesives for both structural and non-structural applications were tested in large-scale fire tests on finger-jointed timber lamellas. Those fire tests indicated that structural adhesives certified according to current European testing standards exhibit sufficient strength in fire for the use in glued-laminated timber beams. Taking into account the crack pattern observed in the fire tests, no significant influence on the fire resistance was found between the studied structural adhesives. Therefore, it is not necessary to consider the influence of adhesives in the design of glued-laminated timber beams, given that the adhesive is approved according to current European testing standards.
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Self-Tapping Screws and Threaded Rods as Reinforcement for Structural Timber Elements - A State-Of-The-Art Report

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue448
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Connections
Serviceability
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Dietsch, Philipp
Brandner, Reinhard
Publisher
ScienceDirect
Year of Publication
2015
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Connections
Serviceability
Keywords
Reinforcement
Threaded Rods
Self-Tapping Screws
Shear Stress
Europe
Research Status
Complete
Series
Construction and Building Materials
Summary
In timber engineering, self-tapping screws, optimized primarily for axial loading, represent the state-of-the-art in fastener and reinforcement technology. Their economic advantages and comparatively easy handling make them one of the first choices for application in both domains. This paper focuses on self-tapping screws and threaded rods applied as reinforcement, illustrating the state-of-the-art in application and design approaches in Europe, in conjunction with numerous references for background information. With regard to medium to large span timber structures which are predominately erected by using linear timber members, from e.g. glued laminated timber, the focus of this paper is on their reinforcement against stresses perpendicular to grain as well as shear. However, latest findings with respect to cross laminated timber are included as well.
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Timber-Concrete-Composites Increasing the Use of Timber in Construction

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue615
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Bridges and Spans
Floors
Author
Dias, Alfredo
Skinner, Jonathan
Crews, Keith
Tannert, Thomas
Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Year of Publication
2015
Format
Journal Article
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Bridges and Spans
Floors
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
North America
Europe
Oceania
Research Status
Complete
Series
European Journal of Wood and Wood Products
Summary
Timber-concrete-composite (TCC) systems have increasingly been used in recent decades. One of the main reasons for this development is related to applications that could not be built with timber alone, but that become possible with a TCC solution. This paper first gives a short overview of the use of TCCs, the relevant regulatory framework, and then presents several case studies of TCC applications. The perspectives and examples are from Europe, North America and Oceania to give a worldwide perspective from regions where TCC systems are being used. The structural systems presented in the case studies include bridges and floors in public buildings. For each project, details of the application are presented and the way each one contributed to extend the use of timber in construction.
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Cross-Laminated Timber: Status and Research Needs in Europe

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue321
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Espinoza, Omar
Trujillo, Vladimir
Laguarda Mallo, Maria Fernanda
Buehlmann, Urs
Publisher
North Carolina State University
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Europe
Awareness
Research Needs
Adoption
Research Status
Complete
Series
BioResources
Summary
In the 20 years since its invention in Europe, cross-laminated timber (CLT) has become a widely used construction material in parts of the old continent and has started to attract global attention. CLT possesses numerous advantages as a construction material, including its superior structural and environmental performance, as well as the speed and efficiency with which CLT buildings can be erected. In this study, European engineers were surveyed to learn about their current level of awareness of CLT, the major barriers to CLT adoption, and about the most pressing research needs to advance the use of CLT as a construction material. The study used a web-based survey with a convenience sample of 93 different kinds of timber and civil engineers and/or researchers, most of which belong to a European CLT research network. Results showed that participants think that, in general, the level of awareness about CLT among developers, construction managers, engineers, architects, and construction managers, is low. The majority of perceived barriers for CLT adoption involved its building code compatibility and the availability of technical information. The most pressing research needs for CLT development, according to respondents, are in the areas of structural performance and connections, moisture performance, and market research.
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Wood Lightweight Concrete Composites Structural Elements: Ecological Impact

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1521
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Fadai, Alireza
Borska, Andrea
Winter, Wolfgang
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Energy Efficiency
Ecological Impact
Lightweight Concrete
Europe
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 623-631
Summary
Within several research projects and with the aim to optimize energy efficiency and ecological characteristics of structural building components the Department of Structural Design and Timber Engineering (ITI) at the Vienna University of Technology (VUT) developed several wood-based composite systems, which combine timber products with other conventional building materials and components. As a representative example for these developments, the application of wood lightweight concrete composites illustrates the extent of interrelationships in the development of complex system solutions when focusing on the increase of resource efficiency. The environmental assessment shows the ecological advantages of the developed concept compared to conventional concrete elements and underlines the potential for further developments. Assessment of structural wood-based wood lightweight concrete composites are illustrated in this paper.
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20 records – page 1 of 2.