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Carbon Value Engineering: Integrated Carbon and Cost Reduction Strategies for Building Design

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2268
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Environmental Impact
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Walls
Beams
Author
Robati, Mehdi
Oldfield, Philip F.
Nezhad, Ali Akbar
Carmichael, David
Organization
UNSW Sydney
Multiplex Australasia
Publisher
Cooperative Research for Low Carbon Living
Year of Publication
2019
Country of Publication
Australia
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Walls
Beams
Topic
Environmental Impact
Cost
Keywords
Value Engineering
Embodied Carbon
Hybrid Life Cycle Assessment
Capital Cost
Environmentally-extended Input-Output Analysis
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The research presents a Carbon Value Engineering framework. This is a quantitative value analysis method, which not only estimates cost but also considers the carbon impact of alternative design solutions. It is primarily concerned with reducing cost and carbon impacts of developed design projects; that is, projects where the design is already a completed to a stage where a Bill of Quantity (BoQ) is available, material quantities are known, and technical understanding of the building is developed. This research demonstrates that adopting this integrated carbon and cost method was able to reduce embodied carbon emissions by 63-267 kgCO2-e/m2 (8-36%) when maintaining a concrete frame, and 72-427 kgCO2-e/m2 (10-57%) when switching to a more novel whole timber frame. With a GFA of 43,229 m2 these savings equate to an overall reduction of embodied carbon in the order of 2,723 – 18,459 tonnes of CO2-e. Costs savings for both alternatives were in the order of $127/m2 which equates to a 10% reduction in capital cost. For comparison purposes the case study was also tested with a high-performance façade. This reduced lifecycle carbon emissions in the order of 255 kgCO2-e/m2, over 50 years, but at an additional capital cost, due to the extra materials. What this means is strategies to reduce embodied carbon even late in the design stage can provide carbon savings comparable, and even greater than, more traditional strategies to reduce operational emissions over a building’s effective life.
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Free
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Design Concept for a Greened Timber Truss Bridge in City Area

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2392
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Design and Systems
Environmental Impact
Application
Bridges and Spans
Author
Kromoser, Benjamin
Ritt, Martin
Spitzer, Alexandra
Stangl, Rosemarie
Idam, Friedrich
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Journal Article
Application
Bridges and Spans
Topic
Design and Systems
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Wooden Trusses
Timber Bridges
Timber Engineering
Greened Structures
Vertical Green
Sustainable Structural Engineering
Digital Design
Parametric Design
Automated Construction
Resource-Efficient Structural Engineering
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
Summary
Properly designed wooden truss bridges are environmentally compatible construction systems. The sharp decline in the erection of such structures in the past decades can be led back to the great effort needed for design and production. Digital parametric design and automated prefabrication approaches allow for a substantial improvement of the efficiency of design and manufacturing processes. Thus, if combined with a constructive wood protection following traditional building techniques, highly efficient sustainable structures are the result. The present paper describes the conceptual design for a wooden truss bridge drawn up for the overpass of a two-lane street crossing the university campus of one of Vienna’s main universities. The concept includes the greening of the structure as a shading design element. After an introduction, two Austrian traditional wooden bridges representing a good and a bad example for constructive wood protection are presented, and a state of the art of the production of timber trusses and greening building structures is given as well. The third part consists of the explanation of the boundary conditions for the project. Subsequently, in the fourth part, the conceptual design, including the design concept, the digital parametric design, the optimization, and the automated prefabrication concept, as well as the potential greening concept are discussed, followed by a summary and outlook on future research.
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Free
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Experimental Investigation on Long-term Axial Creep Performance of Pine, Spotted Gum and Laminated Veneer Lumber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2485
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems

Fire Tests of South African Cross-laminated Timber Wall Panels: Fire Ratings, Charring Rates, and Delamination

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2442
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Author
van der Westhuyzen, S.
Walls, R.
de Koker, N.
Publisher
Scientific Elecronic Library Online (SciELO) South Africa
Year of Publication
2020
Country of Publication
South Africa
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Structural Fire Engineering
Charring Rate
Delamination
Panels
Pine
Eucalyptus
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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High Performance Connections to Mitigate Seismic Damage in Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) Structures

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2707
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Connections
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Walls
Author
Smiroldo, Francesco
Gaspari, Andrea
Viel, Davide
Piazza, Maurizio
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Walls
Topic
Connections
Seismic
Keywords
Finite Element Modelling
Non-linear Analysis
Seismic Engineering
Earthquake
Connection Systems
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Earthquake Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The present study proposes a new connection system for Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) structures in earthquake prone areas. The system is suitable for creating wall-floor-wall and wall-foundation connections, where each connection device can transfer both shear and tension forces, thus replacing the role of traditional “hold downs” and “angle brackets”, and eliminating possible uncertainty on the load paths and on the force-transfer mechanism. For design earthquakes intensity, the proposed system is designed to remain elastic without accessing the inelastic resources, avoiding in this way permanent deformations in both structural and non-structural elements. However, in case of unforeseen events of exceptional intensity, the system exhibits a pseudo-ductile behaviour, with significant deformation capacity. Furthermore, in the proposed system the vertical forces are directly transferred through the contact between wall panels, avoiding compressions orthogonal to the grain of the floor panels. In this research, the connection system was analysed via finite element modelling based on numerical strategies with different levels of refinements. Nonlinear analyses were performed in order to investigate the response of the connection to shear, tension and a combination of such forces. The numerical responses were compared with those of full-scale experimental tests performed on the proposed connection subjected to different kind of loading configuration. The results appear as promising, suggesting that the proposed connection system could represent a viable solution to build medium-rise seismic-resistant CLT structures, that minimise damage to structural and non-structural elements and the cost of repair.
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Identifying Mass Timber Research Priorities, Barriers to Adoption and Engineering, Procurement and Construction Challenges In Canada

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2372
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Market and Adoption
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Syed, Taha
Publisher
University of Toronto
Year of Publication
2020
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Thesis
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Mass Timber
Barriers
Research Priorities
Challenges
Construction
Engineering
Procurement
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Mass timber construction in Canada is in the spotlight and emerging as a sustainable building system that offers an opportunity to optimize the value of every tree harvested and to revitalize a declining forest industry, while providing climate mitigation solutions. Little research has been conducted, however, to identify the mass timber research priorities of end users, barriers to adoption and engineering, procurement and construction challenges in Canada. This study helps bridge these gaps. The study also created an interactive, three-dimensional GIS map displaying mass timber projects across North America, as an attempt to offer a helpful tool to practitioners, researchers and students, and fill a gap in existing knowledge sharing. The study findings, based on a web-based survey of mass timber end users, suggest the need for more research on (a) total project cost comparisons with concrete and steel, (b) hybrid systems and (c) mass timber building construction methods and guidelines. The most important barriers for successful adoption are (a) misconceptions about mass timber with respect to fire and building longevity, (b) high and uncertain insurance premiums, (c) higher cost of mass timber products compared to concrete and steel, and (d) resistance to changing from concrete and steel. In terms of challenges: (a) building code compliance and regulations, (b) design permits and approvals, and (c) insufficient design experts in the market are rated by study participants as the most pressing “engineering” challenge. The top procurement challenges are (a) too few manufactures and suppliers, (b) long distance transportation, and (c) supply and demand gaps. The most important construction challenges are (a) inadequate skilled workforce, (b) inadequate specialized subcontractors, and (c) excessive moisture exposure during construction.
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Free
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Joint Professional Practice Guidelines: Encapsulated Mass Timber Construction up to 12 Storeys

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2772
Edition
Version 1.0 March 30, 2021
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Organization
Architectural Institute of British Columbia (AIBC)
Engineers and Geoscientists British Columbia
Edition
Version 1.0 March 30, 2021
Year of Publication
2021
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Book/Guide
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Acoustics
Structural
Design
Building Enclosure
Architecture
Quality Assurance
Building Code
Encapsulated Mass Timber Construction
Engineering
Fire Protection
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
These Joint Professional Practice Guidelines – Encapsulated Mass Timber Construction Up to 12 Storeys were jointly prepared by the Architectural Institute of British Columbia (AIBC) and Engineers and Geoscientists British Columbia. The AIBC and Engineers and Geoscientists BC regulate and govern the professions of architecture, engineering, and geoscience under the Architects Act and the Professional Governance Act. The AIBC and Engineers and Geoscientists BC each have a regulatory mandate to protect the public interest, which is met in part by setting and maintaining appropriate academic, experience, and professional practice standards. Engineering Professionals are required per Section 7.3.1 of the Bylaws - Professional Governance Act to have regard for applicable standards, policies, plans, and practices established by the government or by Engineers and Geoscientists BC, including professional practice guidelines. For Engineering Professionals, these professional practice guidelines clarify the expectations for professional practice, conduct, and competence when providing engineering services for EMTC buildings. For Architects, these guidelines provide important information and identify issues to be considered when providing architectural services for EMTC buildings. These guidelines deal with the performance of specific activities in a manner such that Architects and Engineering Professionals can meet their professional obligations under the Architects Act and the Professional Governance Act. These guidelines were developed in response to new classifications of building size and construction relative to occupancy introduced in the 2018 British Columbia Building Code (BCBC), under Division B, Article 3.2.2.48EMTC. Group C, up to 12 storeys, Sprinklered, and Article 3.2.2.57EMTC. Group D, up to 12 storeys, Sprinklered. These new classifications were introduced in Revision 2 of the 2018 BCBC on December 12, 2019 and in Amendment 12715 of the 2019 Vancouver Building By-law (VBBL) on July 1, 2020. Additionally, provisions related to Encapsulated Mass Timber Construction (EMTC) were introduced in Revision 1 of the 2018 British Columbia Fire Code (BCFC) on December 12, 2019. These guidelines were first published in 2021 to provide guidance on architectural and engineering considerations relating to these significant changes to the 2018 BCBC, the 2019 VBBL, and the 2018 BCFC. For Engineering Professionals, these guidelines are intended to clarify the expectations of professional practice, conduct, and competence when Engineering Professionals are engaged on an EMTC building. For Architects, these guidelines inform and support relevant competency standards of practice to be met when Architects are engaged on an EMTC building. As with all building and construction types, the EMTC-specific code provisions prescribe minimum requirements that must be met. The majority of EMTC of 7 to 12 storeys are considered High Buildings, and as such are subject to the BCBC, Subsection 3.2.6. Additional Requirements for High Buildings.
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Free
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A Review of Factors Affecting the Burning Behaviour of Wood for Application to Tall Timber Construction

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2504
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Fire
Design and Systems
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Bartlett, Alastair
Hadden, Rory
Bisby, Luke
Publisher
Springer
Year of Publication
2019
Country of Publication
Netherlands
Format
Journal Article
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Design and Systems
Keywords
Pyrolysis
Charring
Fire Safety Engineering
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Fire Technology
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Seismic Retrofit of Masonry Infilled Frames by Using Timber Panels

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2728
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Smiroldo, Francesco
Giongo, Ivan
Piazza, Maurizio
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Keywords
Structural Rehabilitation
Seismic Engineering
Concrete Structures
Panels
Nonlinear Analyses
Finite Element Model
Retrofit
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Earthquake Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The study presented herein proposes a retrofit method aimed at reducing the seismic vulnerability of reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures. The method consists in the replacement of the existing masonry infills with timber structural panels made of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) fixed to the concrete frame by using a timber subframe and dissipative metal dowel-type fasteners. The first part of the research was carried out by performing nonlinear static analyses of finiteelement (FE) models of bare, masonry infilled and retrofitted single-storey single-bay frames. A large number of configurations was analysed considering different original conditions (e.g. in terms of geometrical characteristics, mechanical properties and loading) and several retrofit implementation approaches. Special attention was paid to the improvement of the seismic response of the beam-column joints, that represent a well-known structural vulnerability of existing concrete frame-buildings. The analysis results permitted to define a set of “general rules” to guide the implementation of the retrofit method depending on the characteristics of the original structure. Using these design rules, the proposed solution was then applied to the FE models of three case-study buildings, located in Italy and built in the period from 1950 to 1990. By comparing the seismic response of the pre- and post-intervention structures, it was observed that the proposed system could significantly improve the structural behaviour of the buildings, favouring the development of ductile mechanisms and reducing the vulnerability of the beam-column joints.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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9 records – page 1 of 1.