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24 records – page 2 of 3.

Environmental Consideration of the Building Envelope in Wood Projects - Materials and LCA Approach

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2672
Topic
Environmental Impact
Energy Performance
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Building Envelope
Organization
Université Laval
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Building Envelope
Topic
Environmental Impact
Energy Performance
Keywords
Life Cycle Analysis
Energy Efficiency
Curtain Wall
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Project contact is Pierre Blanchet at Université Laval (Canada)
Summary
The work of Lessard et al. (2017) demonstrated that the building envelope was an important system in the building in terms of environmental impact, but only took into account the external components of the building envelope. This project will perform a life cycle analysis of the main building envelopes for a typical building under commercial construction. By relying on our design partners, the main systems and associated materials will be analyzed in a cradle-to-grave approach. It is desirable to identify hot spots and to indicate avenues for product development in order to reduce the envelope's environmental footprint. Among the scenarios to be considered: light framework, CLT, curtain walls and all their possible variants, but also commonly used non-biobased systems. The comparison between the systems studied will be based on an equivalent energy efficiency performance.
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Evolution of the Building Envelope in Modern Wood Construction

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1799
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Design and Systems
Energy Performance
Moisture
Site Construction Management
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Building Envelope
Author
Wang, Jieying
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Building Envelope
Topic
Design and Systems
Energy Performance
Moisture
Site Construction Management
Keywords
Energy Efficiency
Building Envelope
Tall Wood
Wood Infill Walls
Podium Structures
Articulated Buildings
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This report provides an overview of major changes occurred in the recent decade to design and construction of the building envelope of wood and wood-hybrid construction. It also covers some new or unique considerations required to improve building envelope performance, due to evolutions of structural systems, architectural design, energy efficiency requirements, or use of new materials. It primarily aims to help practicioners better understand wood-based building envelope systems to improve design and construction practices. The information provided should also be useful to the wood industry to better understand the demands for wood products in the market place. Gaps in research are identified and summarized at the end of this report.
Online Access
Free
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Guide for Designing Energy-Efficient Building Enclosures for Wood-Frame Multi-Unit Residential Buildings in Marine to Cold Climate Zones in North America

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2620
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Energy Performance
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Walls
Author
Finch, Graham
Wang, J.
Ricketts, D.
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Book/Guide
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Walls
Topic
Energy Performance
Design and Systems
Keywords
Thermal Performance
Multi-Family
Residential Buildings
Energy Efficiency
Building Code
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The Guide for Designing Energy-Efficient Building Enclosures for Wood-Frame Multi-Unit Residential Buildings in Marine to Cold Climate Zones in North America was developed by FPInnovations in collaboration with RDH Building Engineering Ltd., the Homeowner Protection Office, Branch of BC Housing, and the Canadian Wood Council. The project is part of efforts within the Advanced Building Systems Program of FPInnovations to assemble and add to the knowledge base regarding Canadian wood products and building systems. The team of the Advanced Building Systems Program works with members and partners of FPInnovations to address critical technical issues that threaten existing markets for wood products or which limit expansion or access to such new markets. This guide was developed in response to the rapidly changing energy-efficiency requirements for buildings across Canada and the United States. This guide serves two major objectives: To assist architects, engineers, designers and builders in improving the thermal performance of building enclosures of wood multi-unit residential buildings (MURBs), in response to the increasingly stringent requirements for the energy efficiency of buildings in the marine to cold climate zones in North America (U.S. DOE/ASHRAE and NECB Climate Zones 5 through 7 and parts of Zone 4); To advance MURB design practices, construction practices, and material use based on best knowledge, in order to ensure the durable performance of wood-frame building enclosures that are insulated to higher levels than traditional wood-frame construction. The major requirements for thermal performance of building enclosures are summarized (up to February 2013), including those for the following codes and standards: 2011 National Energy Code of Canada for Buildings (2011 NECB); 2013 interim update of the 2010 National Building Code of Canada (2010 NBC, Section 9.36–Energy Efficiency); 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (2012 IECC); American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1– Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (2004, 2007, and 2010 versions). In addition to meeting the requirements of the various building codes and standards, a building may need to incorporate construction practices that reflect local preferences in material use, design and construction. Regional climate differences will also affect design solutions. This guide primarily addresses above-grade walls, below-grade walls and roofs of platform wood-frame construction. It also includes information regarding thermal performance of cross-laminated timber (CLT) assemblies as well as the use of non-bearing wood-frame exterior walls (infill walls) in wood post-and-beam and concrete structures. Examples of thermal resistance calculations, building assemblies, critical interface detailing, and appropriate material selection are provided to help guide designers and builders meet the requirements of the various energy-efficiency codes and standards, achieve above-code performance, and ensure long-term durability. This guide builds on the fundamentals of building science and on information contained within the Building Enclosure Design Guide: Wood-Frame Multi-Unit Residential Buildings, published by the Homeowner Protection Office, Branch of BC Housing. This guide is based on the best current knowledge and future updates are anticipated. The guide is not intended to be a substitute for professional advice that considers specific building parameters.
Online Access
Free
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Illustrated Guide for Designing Wood-Frame Buildings in Alberta to Meet the National Energy Code of Canada for Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1917
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Design and Systems
Application
Building Envelope
Author
Wang, Jieying
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2019
Format
Book/Guide
Application
Building Envelope
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Building Codes
Energy Efficiency
Mid-Rise
Thermal
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This guide was developed by FPInnovations and its partners to assist in the design and construction of durable and energy-efficient wood-frame buildings in Alberta. The Province adopted the National Energy Code for Buildings 2011, as of November 1, 2016, in order to comply with the energy-efficiency requirements for large buildings (Part 3). It is now also possible, with new building regulations, to build wood structures with a maximum of six storeys or 18 m height in Alberta. This guide aims to provide solutions for the building envelope (enclosure) of Part 3 wood buildings, particularly five- and six-storey wood-frame buildings, to meet the prescriptive thermal requirements of the new energy code. A range of wood-based exterior wall and roof assemblies are covered, based on light wood frame or mass timber, and various thermal insulation materials are discussed. Effective R-values are calculated based on typical thermal insulation values of commonly used materials. This document also covers key considerations for building envelope design to maintain long-term durability in Alberta’s varied climate.
Online Access
Free
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Life Cycle Assessment of a Residential Building with Cross-laminated Timber Structure in Granada-Spain

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2408
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Vidal, Rosario
Sánchez-Pantoja Belenguer, NúriaOrcid
Martínez Montes, German
Organization
Universitat Jaume I
Universidad de Granada
Publisher
Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja (IETcc) (CSIC)
Year of Publication
2019
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Residential Buildings
Life-Cycle Assessment
Energy Efficiency
Construction
Research Status
Complete
Series
Informes de la Construcción
Summary
A residential building with cross-laminated timber structure in Granada (Spain) was analyzed using the life cycle assessment methodology, life cycle energy analysis and sensitivity analysis to changes in efficiency of operating energy, materials database, transport distances and different scenarios for C&DW. The environmental impacts of the materials and construction production and embedded energy were relatively significant. The global warming impact category was very low due to the CO2 sequestration of wooden materials. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the most significant reduction in environmental impact was achieved through improvements in energy efficiency, high uncertainty in the impacts of the environmental product declaration, the low effect of long-distance transport on the overall impact and the feasibility of the objective of recovery of the Waste Framework Directive by 2020 (above 70%).
Online Access
Free
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Modeling the Impact of Assembly Tolerances Regarding Air Leaks on the Energy Efficiency and Durability of a Cross-Laminated Timber Structure

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2365
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Energy Performance
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Martin, Ulysse
Blanchet, Pierre
Potvin, André
Publisher
North Carolina State University
Year of Publication
2019
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Energy Performance
Design and Systems
Keywords
Energy Efficiency
Air Leakage
HAM Analysis
Durability Assessment
Research Status
Complete
Series
BioResources
Summary
Air leaks have a considerable impact on the energy load and durability of buildings, particularly in cold climates. In wood construction using cross-laminated timber (CLT), air leaks are most likely to be concentrated at the joints between panels and other elements. This study used simulations of heat, air, and moisture transfers through a gap between two CLT panels causing air leakage in winter conditions under a cold climate. A real leakage occurrence was sized to validate the simulations. The aim of this work was to assess the impact on the energy loads and the durability of an air leak, as either infiltration or exfiltration, for different gap widths and relative humidity levels. The results showed that infiltrations had a greater impact on the energy load than exfiltrations but did not pose a threat to the durability, as opposed to exfiltrations. Gap sizes in CLT may vary, but the effect on the energy load was sensitive to the leakage path in the rest of the wall. As expected, a combination of winter exfiltration and a high level of interior relative humidity was particularly detrimental.
Online Access
Free
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Monitoring Performance of Mass Timber Demonstration Buildings in Ontario

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2286
Topic
Energy Performance
Organization
FPInnovations
Topic
Energy Performance
Keywords
Monitoring
Vertical Movement
Energy Efficiency
Acoustics
Moisture Management
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Canada
Summary
Set plans and requirements for monitoring vertical movement, energy efficiency, acoustics, and moisture management in demonstration buildings, and collaborate with the University of Ottawa for measuring structural characteristics of the demonstration buildings
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Multifunctional Composite Wall Elements for Multistory Buildings Made of Timber and Wood-Based Lightweight Concrete

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1520
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Environmental Impact
Design and Systems
Energy Performance
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Walls
Author
Fadai, Alireza
Radlherr, Christoph
Setoodeh Jahromy, Sepehr
Winter, Wolfgang
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Walls
Topic
Environmental Impact
Design and Systems
Energy Performance
Keywords
Lightweight Concrete
Energy Efficiency
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 613-622
Summary
This paper aims to discuss timber-wood lightweight concrete composites for application in wall components for buildings. The aim is to develop a multi-layer wall system composed of wood lightweight concrete, connected timber sections to gain and use advantages of each used material – lightweight, structural, thermal storage and insulation, ecological and economic benefits – to name the most important ones. The development of timber-wood lightweight concrete composites systems will lead to a new generation of polyvalent multi-material building components. By using renewable resources, waste products of the forest industry, and manufactured wood products, this technology provides statically and energy-efficient components for low-energy constructions. Such products support rapid-assembly construction methods, which use prefabricated dry elements to increase the efficiency of the construction. Wood-based alternatives to conventional concrete or masonry construction also open opportunities to reduce the carbon emissions.
Online Access
Free
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Nested Buildings: An Innovative Strategy for the Integrated Seismic and Energy Retrofit of Existing Masonry Buildings with CLT Panels

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2770
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Valluzzi, Maria Rosa
Saler, Elisa
Vignato, Alberto
Salvalaggio, Matteo
Croatto, Giorgio
Dorigatti, Giorgia
Turrini, Umberto
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Keywords
Nested Buildings
Seismic Retrofitting
Energy Efficiency
Integrated Intervention
Built Heritage
Masonry Buildings
Panels
Hybrid Structures
Italy
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
Summary
The Italian building heritage is aged and inadequate to the high-performance levels required nowadays in terms of energy efficiency and seismic response. Innovative techniques are generating a strong interest, especially in terms of multi-level approaches and solution optimizations. Among these, Nested Buildings, an integrated intervention approach which preserves the external existing structure and provides a new structural system inside, aim at improving both energy and structural performances. The research presented hereinafter focuses on the strengthening of unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings with cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels, thanks to their lightweight, high stiffness, and good hygrothermal characteristics. The improvement of the hygrothermal performance was investigated through a 2D-model analyzed in the dynamic regime, which showed a general decreasing in the overall thermal transmittance for the retrofitted configurations. Then, to evaluate the seismic behavior of the coupled system, a parametric linear static analysis was implemented for both in-plane and out-of-plane directions, considering various masonry types and connector spacings. Results showed the efficiency of the intervention to improve the in-plane response of walls, thus validating possible applications to existing URM buildings, where local overturning mechanisms are prevented by either sufficient construction details or specific solutions. View Full-Text
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Free
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Passive House Performance in Cold Climates: a Review of the Envelope Performance and Energy Consumption of a Certified Research and Testing Facility in Canada

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3349
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Energy Performance
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Conroy, A.
Wimmers, G.
Organization
University of Northern British Columbia
Year of Publication
2020
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Energy Performance
Keywords
Passive House
Hygrothermal Behavior
Energy Efficiency
Cold Climate
Energy Consumption
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The University of Northern British Columbia’s Wood Innovation Research Lab (WIRL) is the first industrial facility tested and certified to the International Passive House standard in Canada. Constructed using a glulam post and beam system and unique high-performance standing truss wall assembly, the building serves as a research and testing facility for University faculty and students. Temperature and humidity sensors were installed in the north and south wall façade during construction to measure the building’s hygrothermal performance. In addition, energy consumption meters were installed to measure the annual energy and heating demand of the building. Both the hygrothermal performance and energy use data are of interest due to the unique envelope design, the building’s location in a cold climate and the intended use of the building. Energy consumption results are compared to those calculated in the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) model completed for the building. Initial findings after an eighteen-month data collection period found that the exterior walls did not experience 100% relative humidity during the data collection period but that high readings of relative humidity (>80%) did occur. The measured annual heating and energy demand of the WIRL exceeded the predicted consumption values calculated in the PHPP model due to occupant behavior, mechanical system operation inefficiencies and discrepancies that exist between modeled vs actual climate conditions.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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24 records – page 2 of 3.