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11 records – page 1 of 2.

Can Mass-Timber Construction Materials Provide Effective Thermal Capacitance in New Homes?

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue241
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Dewsbury, Mark
Geard, Detlev
Fay, Roger
Organization
International Building Performance Simulation Association
Year of Publication
2012
Format
Conference Paper
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Australia
Building Code
Building Code of Australia
Carbon
Climate Change
Codes
Embodied Energy
Mass Timber
Thermal
Conference
ASim 2012
Research Status
Complete
Notes
November 25-27, 2012, Shanghai, China
Summary
There has been no research to date exploring whether timber products can provide effective thermal capacitance in residential or commercial construction. This research is exploring the use of unique mass-timber products to provide a new form of thermal performance capacitance within the built fabric of new and existing homes. The development of mass timber products is a new paradigm in material and building science research in Australia, requiring the accounting for carbon emissions, carbon sequestration, material embodied energy and material thermal properties for this renewable resource. This paper focuses on the results from preliminary building simulation studies encompassing house energy rating simulations and a comparative analysis of embodied energy and carbon storage for a series of house plans in Australia.
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Comparative LCAs of Conventional and Mass Timber Buildings in Regions with Potential for Mass Timber Penetration

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2885
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Environmental Impact
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Puettmann, Maureen
Pierobon, Francesca
Ganguly, Indroneil
Gu, Hongmei
Chen, Cindy
Liang, Shaobo
Jones, Susan
Maples, Ian
Wishnie, Mark
Organization
University of Washington
Forest Products Laboratory
Portland State University
Editor
Borghi, Adriana Del
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Mass Timber
Life-Cycle Assessment
Embodied Carbon
Embodied Energy
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
Summary
Manufacturing of building materials and construction of buildings make up 11% of the global greenhouse gas emission by sector. Mass timber construction has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by moving wood into buildings with designs that have traditionally been dominated by steel and concrete. The environmental impacts of mass timber buildings were compared against those of functionally equivalent conventional buildings. Three pairs of buildings were designed for the Pacific Northwest, Northeast and Southeast regions in the United States to conform to mass timber building types with 8, 12, or 18 stories. Conventional buildings constructed with concrete and steel were designed for comparisons with the mass timber buildings. Over all regions and building heights, the mass timber buildings exhibited a reduction in the embodied carbon varying between 22% and 50% compared to the concrete buildings. Embodied carbon per unit of area increased with building height as the quantity of concrete, metals, and other nonrenewable materials increased. Total embodied energy to produce, transport, and construct A1–A5 materials was higher in all mass timber buildings compared to equivalent concrete. Further research is needed to predict the long-term carbon emissions and carbon mitigation potential of mass timber buildings to conventional building materials.
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Cross-Laminated Timber: Towards a Consistent Structural Insulated Panel for Passive Building in Belgium

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue497
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Léoskool, Laurent
Descamps, Thierry
Van Parys, Laurent
Trujillo, Vladimir
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Low-Energy
Embodied Energy
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 10-14, 2014, Quebec City, Canada
Summary
Nowadays, it is possible to build zero-energy houses or even positive energy buildings. Nevertheless, many incoherencies exists if we attach importance to the embodied energy of its constructions. The present paper lays on the logic of structural insulated panel which is used in many low-energy and passive houses and go further in order to reduce the global greenhouse gases emissions. For this purpose, cross-laminated timber is used instead of oriented strand board and the insulation used is made of wood wool. The structure, the technology and the thermal aspects are discussed as well as the fire resistance in order to show if its new product is economically and technically interesting. Results show that the embodied energy can be drastically reduced compared to the structural insulated panels. A wood consumption reduction of thirty percent can also be obtained compared to the classical cross-laminated timber construction.
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Environmental Performances of a Timber-Concrete Prefabricated Composite Wall System

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1343
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Walls
Author
Fortuna, Stefano
Dalla Mora, Tiziano
Peron, Fabio
Romagnoni, Piercarlo
Publisher
ScienceDirect
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Walls
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Concrete Glulam Framed Panel
Embodied Energy
Carbon Footprint
Cradle-to-Gate
Prefabrication
Reinforced Concrete
Research Status
Complete
Series
Energy Procedia
Summary
The improvement of environmental performance in building construction could be achieved by prefabrication. This study quantifies and compares the environmental impacts of a Concrete Glulam Framed Panel (CGFP): the basic configuration of this precast component consists in a Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) frame structure supporting a thin reinforced concrete slab with an interior insulation panel and covered by finishing layers. The research investigates also alternative design of configuration with the substitution of different insulation materials in order to minimize the Embodied Energy and Carbon Footprint values. The boundary of the quantitative analysis is “cradle to gate” including the structural support system; an IMPACT 2002+ characterization methodology is employed to translate inventory flows into impacts indicators. Results present very low values for carbon footprint (60.63 kg CO2eq m-2) and the embodied energy values (919.44 MJ m-2) indicate this hybrid precast structure as a valid alternative building constructions and processes. A detailed discussion of the outputs is presented, including the comparison of the environmental performances depending on different insulation materials.
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Life cycle energy analysis of residential wooden buildings versus concrete and steel buildings: A review

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3264
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Environmental Impact
Author
Schenk, Daniela
Amiri, Ali
Organization
Aalto University
Publisher
Frontiers
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Life Cycle Energy Analysis
Embodied Energy
Review
Research Status
Complete
Series
Frontiers in Built Environment
Summary
Around 40% of global energy consumption can be attributed to the construction sector. Consequently, the development of the construction industry towards more sustainable solutions and technologies plays a crucial role in the future of our planet. Various tools and methods have been developed to assess the energy consumption of buildings, one of which is life cycle energy analysis (LCEA). LCEA requires the energy consumption at each stage of the life cycle of a product to be assessed, enabling the comparison of the impact of construction materials on energy consumption. Findings from LCEAs of buildings suggest that timber framed constructions show promising results with respect to energy consumption and sustainability. In this study a critical analysis of 100 case studies from the literature of LCEAs conducted for residential buildings is presented. Based on the studied material, the embodied, operational, and demolition energies for timber, concrete and steel buildings are compared and the importance of sustainable material selection for buildings is highlighted. The results reveal that on average, the embodied energy of timber buildings is 28–47% lower than for concrete and steel buildings respectively. The mean and median values of embodied emissions are 2,92 and 2,97 for timber, 4.08 and 3,95 for concrete, and 5,55 and 5,53 GJ/m2 for steel buildings. Moreover, the data suggests that the energy supply system of residential buildings plays a larger role in the operational energy consumption than the construction material. In addition, climate conditions, insulation detail, windows and building surfaces, and building direction are the other energy use role players. Finally, it was found that the demolition energy contributes only a small amount to the total life cycle energy consumption. This study demonstrates the significance of embodied energy when comparing the life cycle energy requirements of buildings and highlights the need for the development of a more standardised approach to LCEA case studies.
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A New Concrete-Glulam Prefabricated Composite Wall System: Thermal Behavior, Life Cycle Assessment and Structural Response

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1296
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Environmental Impact
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Author
Boscato, Giosuè
Dalla Mora, Tiziano
Peron, Fabio
Russo, Salvatore
Romagnoni, Piercarlo
Publisher
ScienceDirect
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Strength
Stiffness
Concrete Glulam Framed Panel
Thermal Behaviour
Carbon Footprint
Embodied Energy
Life-Cycle Assessment
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Building Engineering
Summary
This study analyses a new hybrid construction system, the CGFP - Concrete Glulam Framed Panel - that merges the two mostly used materials in frame technology. It is a prefabricated composite wall made of a reinforced concrete slab and a glulam frame. The strength and stiffness of CGFP have been investigated by load-displacements tests and thermal performance was evaluated by means of a hot-box apparatus. Moreover, the environmental impacts of the system are verified defining its Carbon Footprint and Embodied Energy. The efficacy of the proposed system was validated by experimental and numerical analysis. Mechanical and thermal properties have been evaluated by means of experimental and numerical tests whose results have been compared showing a good agreement. By structural point of view, the strength and the deformation capacity are ensured through the consecutive and interactive structural response between the wood frame and the concrete slab. By the thermal and environmental point of view, thermal resistance obtained with different kind of insulation materials have been analysed and a calculation of the amount of the Carbon Footprint and Embodied Energy was already performed. The CGFP panel shows a good thermal performance, a low environmental impact respect to similar construction systems and promising structural behavior.
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Free
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Seeing the Forest and the Trees: Environmental Impacts of Cross-Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2702
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Kwok, Alison
Zalusky, Hannah
Rivera, Maria Isabel
Rasmussen, Linsday
McKay, Hannah
Publisher
Taylor&Francis Online
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Greenhouse gas emissions
Embodied Carbon
Embodied Energy
Life Cycle
Research Status
Complete
Series
Technology
Architecture + Design
Summary
With advances in wood product development and building code acceptance, mass timber structural systems have become viable alternatives to steel and concrete structural systems (Post 2015). These mass timber systems have environmental benefits, such as carbon sequestration ability and lower greenhouse gas emissions than steel and concrete systems. How can mass timber materials such as cross-laminated timber (CLT) reduce the environmental impacts of buildings, and how certain is this reduction? In order to truly answer this question, environmental impact assessments of CLT and other wood materials must first address variation and uncertainty in forest management and biogenic carbon accounting.
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Free
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A State of the Art of the Overall Energy Efficiency of Wood Buildings—An Overview and Future Possibilities

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2943
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Energy Performance
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Cabral, Matheus
Blanchet, Pierre
Organization
Université Laval
Editor
Koenders, Eddie
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Energy Performance
Keywords
Construction
Energy Efficiency
Embodied Energy
Mass Timber
Phase-Changing Materials
Post-and-Beam
Wood Composites
Wood-Frame
Research Status
Complete
Series
Materials
Summary
The main goal of this study was to review current studies on the state of the art of wood constructions with a particular focus on energy efficiency, which could serve as a valuable source of information for both industry and scholars. This review begins with an overview of the role of materials in wood buildings to improve energy performance, covering structural and insulation materials that have already been successfully used in the market for general applications over the years. Subsequently, studies of different wood building systems (i.e., wood-frame, post-and-beam, mass timber and hybrid constructions) and energy efficiency are discussed. This is followed by a brief introduction to strategies to increase the energy efficiency of constructions. Finally, remarks and future research opportunities for wood buildings are highlighted. Some general recommendations for developing more energy-efficient wood buildings are identified in the literature and discussed. There is a lack of emerging construction concepts for wood-frame and post-and-beam buildings and a lack of design codes and specifications for mass timber and hybrid buildings. From the perspective of the potential environmental benefits of these systems as a whole, and their effects on energy efficiency and embodied energy in constructions, there are barriers that need to be considered in the future.
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UK Experience of the Use of Timber as a Low Embodied Carbon Structural Material

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2140
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Soulti, Eleni
Moncaster, Alice
Organization
University of Cambridge
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Embodied Carbon
Embodied Energy
Buildings
School Buildings
Multi-Family
Conference
World Sustainable Building Conference
Research Status
Complete
Summary
As buildings become more energy efficient in their operation, embodied energy and carbon become increasingly important. However, there is limited information to allow accurate comparisons of products. Moreover, construction projects are quite complex, not only regarding environmental issues, but also processes and stakeholders. The study of timber as a structural material in the UK is used in this paper to illustrate these factors. The paper brings together five studies and it considers the decisions and processes affecting the use of timber. The EE and EC of timber throughout its lifecycle are identified, including a discussion of assumptions. The impact of various decisions is assessed and the paper concludes by identifying technical and social factors for the focus of policy makers and the industry.
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Why Method Matters: Temporal, Spatial and Physical Variations in LCA and Their Impact on Choice of Structural System

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2142
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Moncaster, Alice
Pomponi, Francesco
Symons, Katherine
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Life-Cycle Assessment
Embodied Carbon
Embodied Energy
Case Study
Buildings
Residential
Research Status
Complete
Series
Energy and Buildings
Summary
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is increasingly used as an early-stage design-decision tool to support choices of structural system. However LCA modellers must first make numerous methodological decisions, and the resultant wide variations in approach are often inadequately described by the modellers. This paper identifies, and quantifies, the three major areas of methodological variation. These are: temporal differences in the stages considered; spatial differences in the material boundaries; and physical disparities in the data coefficients. The effects are then demonstrated through a case study of a student residential building in Cambridge. The cross-laminated timber (CLT) structure is compared with concrete frame, steel frame and load-bearing masonry, considering the influence that varying the temporal boundaries, the data coefficients, and the spatial boundaries has on the choice. While for this building CLT is confirmed as the lowest impact material, the paper demonstrates that varying the methodological choices can change the results by an alarming factor of 10 or even more. The findings confirm the need for the utmost clarity and transparency with all LCA calculations. Making wider industry or policy decisions based on LCA results should be undertaken with extreme caution.
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11 records – page 1 of 2.