The research presented in this paper analysed the stiffness of Cross-Laminated-Timber (CLT) panels under in-plane loading. Finite element analysis (FEA) of CLT walls was conducted. The wood lamellas were modelled as an orthotropic elastic material, while the glue-line between lamellas were modelled using non-linear contact elements. The FEA was verified with test results of CLT panels under in-plane loading and proved sufficiently accurate in predicting the elastic stiffness of the CLT panels. A parametric study was performed to evaluate the change in stiffness of CLT walls with and without openings. The variables for the parametric study were the wall thickness, the aspect ratios of the walls, the size and shape of the openings, and the aspect ratios of the openings. Based on the results, an analytical model was proposed to calculate the in-plane stiffness of CLT walls with openings more accurately than previously available models from the literature.
Timber-Concrete Composite (TCC) systems are comprised of a timber element connected to a concrete slab through a mechanical shear connection. A large number of T-beam configurations currently exist; however, the growing availability of panel-type engineered wood products (EWPs) in North America in combination with a concrete topping has offered designers and engineers greater versatility in terms of architectural expression and structural and building physics performance. The focus of this investigation was to experimentally determine the properties for a range of TCC systems in several EWPs. Strength and stiffness properties were determined for different TCC configurations based on small-scale shear tests. Eighteen floor panels were tested for elastic stiffness under a quasi-static loading protocol and measurements of the dynamic properties were obtained prior to loading to failure. The tests confirmed that calculations according to the -method can predict the basic stiffness and dynamic properties of TCC floors within a reasonable degree of accuracy. Floor capacities were more difficult to predict, however, failure occurred at loads that were between four and ten times serviceability requirements. The research demonstrated that all selected connector configurations produced efficient timber-concrete-composite systems.
This paper presents an experimental study to evaluate the use of spatially arranged self-tapping screws (STS) as shear connections for cross-laminated timber panels. Specifically, simple butt joints combined with crossed STS with different inclinations were investigated under quasi-static monotonic and reversed-cyclic loadings. The influence of the number and angle of insertion of screws, screws characteristics, friction and loading on the joint performance was explored. The yield load, load-carrying capacity and related slips, elastic stiffness, and ductility were evaluated considering two groups of tests performed on a total of 63 specimens of different size. Performance of connections with respect to the energy dissipation and loss of strength under cyclic loads was also investigated. It was shown that the spatial insertion angle of screws plays a key role in the performance of joints, not only because it relates to the shank to grain angle, but also because it affects the amount of wood involved in the bearing mechanism. Design models of STS connections are presented and discussed, and the test results are compared against analytical predictions. While good agreement for load-carrying capacity was obtained, the existing stiffness model seems less adequate with a consistent overestimation.