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12 records – page 1 of 2.

Advanced Topics in Seismic Analysis and Design of Mid-Rise Wood-Frame Structures

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1773
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Ni, Chun
Popovski, Marjan
Wang, Jasmine
Karacabeyli, Erol
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Mid-Rise
Dynamic Analysis
Deflection
Diaphragm
National Building Code of Canada
Capacity-Based Design
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 5343-5351
Summary
The following topics in the field of seismic analysis and design of mid-rise (5- and 6-storey) wood-frame buildings are included in this paper: Determination of the building period, linear dynamic analysis of wood-frame structures, deflections of stacked multi-storey shearwalls, diaphragm classification, capacity-based design for woodframe...
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An Approach to CLT Diaphragm Modeling for Seismic Design with Application to a U.S. High Rise Project

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1671
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Seismic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Wood Building Systems
Author
Breneman, Scott
McDonnell, Eric
Zimmerman, Reid
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Design and Systems
Keywords
US
Diaphragm
Model
High-Rise
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 3844-3852
Summary
A candidate CLT diaphragm analysis model approach is presented and evaluated as an engineering design tool motivated by the needs of seismic design in the United States. The modeling approach consists of explicitly modeling CLT panels as discrete orthotropic shell elements with connections between panels and connections from panels to structural framing modelled as two-point springs. The modeling approach has been compared to a developed CLT diaphragm design example based on U.S. standards showing the ability to obtain matching deflection results. The sensitivity of the deflection calculations to considering CLT panel-to-panel connection gap closure is investigated using a simple diaphragm example. The proposed modeling approach is also applied to the candidate floor diaphragm design for the Framework project, one of the two U.S. Tall Wood Building Prize Competition winners, currently under design. Observations from this effort are that the proposed method, while a more refined model than typically used during building design, shows promise to meet the needs of innovative CLT seismic designs where appropriate simpler diaphragm models are not available.
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An Approach to CLT Diaphragm Modeling for Seismic Design with Application to a U.S. High-Rise Project

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1710
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Floors
Author
Breneman, Scott
McDonnell, Eric
Zimmerman, Reid
Organization
WoodWorks
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Floors
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Keywords
US
Model
Diaphragm
High-Rise
Research Status
Complete
Summary
A candidate cross-laminated timber (CLT) diaphragm analysis model approach is presented and evaluated as an engineering design tool motivated by the needs of seismic design in the United States. the modeling approach consists of explicitly modeling CLT panels as discrete orthotropic shell elements with connections between panels and connections from panels to structural framing modeled as two-point springs. The modeling approach has been compared to a developed CLT diapragm design example based on the US standards showing the ability to obtain matching deflection results. The sensitivity of the deflection calculations considering CLT panel-to-panel connection gap closure is investigated using a simple diaphragm example. the proposed modeling approach is also applied to the candidate floor diaphragm design for the Framework project, a winner of the US Tall Wood Building Prize Competition, currently under design. Observations from this effort are that the proposed method, while a more refined model than typically used during building design, shows promise to meet the needs of innovative CLT seismic designs where appropriate simpler diapragm models are not available.
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CLT Diaphragm Design for Wind and Seismic Resistance

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2967
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Author
Breneman, Scott
McDonnell, Eric
Tremayne, Donovan
Houston, Jonas
Gu, Mengzhe
Zimmerman, Reid
Montgomery, Graham
Organization
WoodWorks
Holmes
KPFF Consulting Engineers
Timberlab
Publisher
WoodWorks
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Diaphragm
Shear Capacity
Diaphragm Flexibility
Panel-to-Panel Connections
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) has become increasingly prominent in building construction and can be seen in buildings throughout the world. Specifically, the use of CLT floor and roof panels as a primary gravity force-resisting component has become relatively commonplace. Now, with availability of the 2021 Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic (SDPWS 2021) from the American Wood Council (AWC), U.S. designers have a standardized path to utilize CLT floor and roof panels as a structural diaphragm. Prior to publication of this document, projects typically had to receive approval to use CLT as a structural diaphragm on a case-by-case basis from the local Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). This paper highlights important provisions of SDPWS 2021 for CLT diaphragm design and recommendations developed by the authors in the upcoming CLT Diaphragm Design Guide, based on SDPWS 2021.
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Comparison of the Seismic Performance of Different Hybrid Timber-Steel Frame Configurations

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1775
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Seismic
Design and Systems
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Shear Walls
Author
Marin, Jose Alberto
He, Minjuan
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Conference Paper
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Shear Walls
Topic
Seismic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Finite Element Model
Timber-Steel Hybrid
Deformation
Lateral Loading
Abaqus
Displacement
Inter-Story Drift
Diaphragm
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 5401-5408
Summary
This paper presents a finite element modeling case study of three different designs of hybrid timber-steel 6-story buildings. One of the buildings is composed by steel frames and timber diaphragms while the other two cases consist of the initial design with timber shear walls added in different dispositions, one with outer walls and the other...
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Design and Performance of High-Rise Structure using Ultra-Lightweight Cross Laminated Timber Floor System

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2698
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Serviceability
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Author
Ahmed, Danish
Ayadat, Tahar
Asiz, Andi
Publisher
ISEC Press
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Serviceability
Keywords
Tall Timber Buildings
Lateral Load
Lateral Deflections
Floor Diaphragm
Conference
International Structural Engineering and Construction Conference
Research Status
Complete
Series
Proceedings of International Structural Engineering and Construction
Summary
The main objective of this paper is to study the structural performance of a high-rise structure when alternative lightweight material known as cross-laminated timber was used as a slab in floor system in lieu of conventional reinforced concrete slab. A numerical case study was conducted using a highly irregular RC frame building with its two 60-story towers joined at the top. Three major analyses were considered. First, modeling and analyzing the building with an RC slab was conducted to determine the design reference. Second, substituting the RC slab with the CLT slab was performed using the same building skeleton. Third, redesigning and optimizing the building skeleton with that CLT to observe skeleton material saving obtained using the same structural performance criteria. Major lateral loads applicable in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia were inputted. Strengths and serviceability requirements for floor diaphragm and lateral load resisting system were checked first before performing a comparative analysis between traditional RC and CLT slabs as floor diaphragm. The structural performance criteria to be used for comparative study between RC and CLT slabs included total drift, inter-story drift due to lateral loads, and base reactions. Structural periods and acceleration responses for each floor were investigated and contrasted with the existing building code. The foundation demand was also investigated based on the structural weight and reactions generated from the RC and CLT floor systems.
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Design Example of a Cantilever Wood Diaphragm

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3033
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Malone, R. Terry
Breneman, Scott
Organization
WoodWorks
Year of Publication
2019
Format
Document
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Shear Wall
Diaphragm
Lateral Force Resisting System
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Complex building shapes and footprints are driving design procedures and code requirements to evolve for all lateral force-resisting systems and materials. As buildings get taller and more complex, there is a greater need to understand the relative stiffness of diaphragms and shear walls, and multi-story shear wall effects. Architecturally demanding exterior wall lines in modern structures do not always provide opportunities to use traditional design approaches. The goal of this paper is to provide an example of how to analyze a single-story structure with a double cantilever diaphragm and help engineers better understand the code and standards issues associated with these types of structures.
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Design Example: Wood Diaphragm Using Envelope Method

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2613
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Neylon, B.
Wang, Jasmine
Ni, Chun
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Report
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Shear
Diaphragm
Low-Rise
Commercial
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This building is a typical one-storey commercial building located in Vancouver, BC. The plan dimensions are 30.5 m x 12.2 m (100’ x 40’), with a building height of 5 m. The walls are wood-based shear walls, with a wood diaphragm roof and a steel moment frame at the storefront. The roof plan is shown in Figure 1. The site is Seismic Class ‘C’. Wind, snow and seismic figures specific to the project location are taken from the current version of the British Columbia Building Code (2012). Roof dead load is assumed to be 1.0 kPa and the wall weight is 0.5 kPa. The weight of non-structural items including mechanical equipment and the storefront façade has not been included in this example for simplicity.
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Diaphragm shear and diagonal compression testing of cross-laminated timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2858
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Walls
Author
Sharifi, Jonas
Sharifi, Zahra
Berg, Sven
Ekevad, Mats
Organization
Luleå University of Technology
Publisher
Springer
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Walls
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Diagonal Compression Test
Diaphragm Shear Test
Shear Modulus
Research Status
Complete
Series
SN Applied Sciences
Summary
To learn the characteristics of a cross-laminated timber (CLT) panel, it is crucial to perform experimental tests. This study presents two experimental test methods to measure the in-plane shear modulus of CLT panels. This characteristic can be measured by multiple methods such as the picture frame test, the diagonal compression test, and the diaphragm shear test. In this study, the same CLT panels are tested and evaluated in the diaphragm shear test and the diagonal compression test to see if more reliable results can be achieved from the diaphragm shear test. This evaluation is done by experimental tests and finite element simulations. The theoretical pure shear simulation is used as a reference case. Finite element simulations are made for both edge glued and non-edge glued CLT panels. Nine CLT panels are tested in the diaphragm shear test and the diagonal compression test. During ideal conditions (uniform material properties and contact conditions), all three simulated methods result in an almost equal shear modulus. During the experimental testing, the diagonal compression test gives more coherent results with the expected shear modulus based on finite element simulations. Based on the diaphragm shear test results, the CLT panels behave like edge glued, but this situation is dismissed. However, during ideal conditions, the diaphragm shear test is seen as a more reliable method due to the higher proportion of shear in the measured area.
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Effects of Moisture Intrusion on the Performance of a Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) Angle Bracket Connection

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2703
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Connections
Moisture
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Bora, Shrenik
Publisher
Oregon State University
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Connections
Moisture
Keywords
Shear Walls
Wall-to-Diaphragm L-Bracket Connection
High Moisture Exposure Conditions
Moisture Cycling
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is revolutionizing the use of wood in the construction sector of North America as a solution for walls and diaphragms in mid-rise or even high-rise timber structures on account of its environmental advantages, high strength-to- weight ratio, fire-safety performance, and propensity for prefabrication. However, considering the hygroscopic nature of wood, moisture intrusion can affect material properties and, moreover, moisture increases the possibility of biological degradation, which can directly affect the durability of CLT structural members and their connections. The favorable seismic performance of connections in the CLT structural systems has been well researched in numerous studies. In addition, even though several research efforts have been conducted to understand the hygrothermal performance of CLT panels, knowledge of the CLT connections when subjected to moisture cycling is minimal. In this study, a CLT shear wall-to-diaphragm L-bracket connection is exposed to two high moisture exposure conditions - flood and simulated rain with increased humidity as well as different exposure durations to investigate the connection performance under the effects of moisture intrusion. Currently, there are four major species that are used for CLT, namely, Douglas-fir, Southern yellow pine, Norway spruce, and Spruce Pine Fir. All four species were incorporated into the study. A total of 264 cyclic tests were performed on wall-to-diaphragm L-bracket connection specimens to evaluate the connection performance in terms of strength, stiffness, and energy dissipation along with the development of two force-displacement engineering models. Results from both exposure studies suggest no significant degradation in connection performance after a moisture cycle of wetting and drying apart from a significant decrease in energy dissipation in flood exposure. However, the effects of multiple moisture cycling merit further study.
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12 records – page 1 of 2.