The following topics in the field of seismic analysis and design of mid-rise (5- and 6-storey) wood-frame buildings are included in this paper: Determination of the building period, linear dynamic analysis of wood-frame structures, deflections of stacked multi-storey shearwalls, diaphragm classification, capacity-based design for woodframe...
In this paper, possibilities and challenges of novel robotic manufacturing processes for segmented timber shells are presented and evaluated. This is achieved by comparing two newly developed construction systems for segmented plate structures: one system consisting of cross-laminated timber elements that are connected with crossing screws, and one system consisting of light-weight, hollow components with finger joints as well as bolted connections. Segmented timber shells are introduced as an emerging structural typology transitioning from applied research to the building industry, enabled by new developments in computational design and digital fabrication methods. Although the two construction systems share their underlying segmentation strategy, they differ in their joint design approach and ensuing fabrication complexity. While the first construction system can be produced with conventional machining technology in the timber industry, the second system was developed in conjunction with innovative robotic manufacturing methods. In order to evaluate the relationships and trade-offs of fabrication complexity and performance, the two systems are compared on a range of metrics, including material use, environmental impact and costs.
Buildings constructed for the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) often have to meet blast-resistance requirements to mitigate the potential effects of terrorism. Terrorism is also a growing threat for civilian buildings (e.g., iconic structures, corporate headquarters, etc.), necessitating more building designers to incorporate blast resistance into their designs. The emergence of mass timber construction, and cross-laminated timber (CLT) in particular, offers a sustainable building material alternative that can also meet blast-resistance criteria in many circumstances.
This paper presents an integrated design tool for structures composed of engineered timber panels that are connected by traditional wood joints. Recent advances in computational architecture have permitted to automate the fabrication and assembly of such structures using Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machines and industrial robotic arms. While several large-scale demonstrators have been realized, most developed algorithms are closed-source or project-oriented. The lack of a general framework makes it difficult for architects, engineers and designers to effectively manipulate this innovative construction system. Therefore, this research aims at developing a holistic design tool targeting a wide range of architectural applications. Main achievements include: (1) a new data structure to deal with modular assemblies, (2) an analytical parametrization of the geometry of five timber joints, (3) a method to generate CNC toolpath while integrating fabrication constraints, and (4) a method to automatically compute robot trajectories for a given stack of timber plates.
Mass timber, proven to be a sustainable and attractive material for urban construction has found little success in the mid-rise market and even less so in the commercial sector. Imitating the structural language of traditional steel and concrete material systems, the inherent material properties and tectonics of mass timber have not been fully explored to the detriment of its wider adoption. Similarly, contemporary workplace concepts such as Activity Based Working (ABW), although aiming to facilitate the diverse activities that take place in the office, the architectural implications of this planning system are typically not well considered and have little interaction with the structural system.
In response, this design led research seeks to develop the interaction between mass timber structure and workplace planning at a urban mid-rise scale, suggesting ways mass timber, as a unique architectural language, can change future workplace design. This research curated a large body of work critiquing existing precedents and exploring methods of mass timber implementation in contemporary workplaces through design. Drawing on this body of work, three prototype designs were developed to a preliminary level and one final design to a detailed resolution on 55 Vivian Street, Te Aro, Wellington.
The developed case study design concludes with a panellised layered arched mass timber structure, proposing a radical shift in the current tectonic language utilised in commercial mass timber buildings. Embracing the inherent properties of mass timber, the architectural expression revolves around complex interactions with the urban context, a varied structural planning grid, integrated façade and ABW furniture systems. The case study design demonstrates how sustainable technologies are not only appropriate, but beneficial for the future of the urban contemporary workplace and the adoption of ABW concepts. And that expressing the properties of mass timber can lead to unique approaches to the structure, creating opportunities to express the tectonics of mass timber at all levels of architectural design: the urban, planning and detail.
This paper discusses the impact of the natural frequency of multi-storey timber structures, focusing on force-based seismic design. Simplified approaches to determine the frequency of light-frame and cross-laminated timber structures are investigated. How stiffness parameters for simple two-dimensional analysis models can be derived from the different contributions of deformation...
This document outlines the basis of design for the performance-based design and nonlinear response history analysis of the Framework Project in Portland, OR. It is intended to be a living document that will be modified and revised as the project develops and in response to peer review comments.
Performance-based design is pursued for this project because the proposed lateral force-resisting system, consisting of post-tensioned rocking cross-laminated timber (CLT) walls is not included in ASCE/SEI 7-10 Table 12.2-1. Lateral force-resisting systems included in ASCE/SEI 7-10 Table 12.2-1 may be designed for earthquake effects using the prescriptive provisions in ASCE/SEI 7- 10. Lateral force-resisting systems not included are still permitted but must be demonstrated to have performance not less than that expected for included systems. This option is available via the performance-based procedures of ASCE/SEI 7-10 Section 18.104.22.168. Note that lateral forceresisting systems for wind effects are not restricted in ASCE/SEI 7-10. Therefore, design for wind effects will still be approached within the performance-based design framework but in a more state-of-the-practice manner.
Americans spend about 90 percent of their time inside. As a result, building professionals are rethinking how people design, use and occupy buildings.
Biophilic design is increasingly used to boost occupant well-being through connection to nature and the use of natural elements like daylight, plants, water and exposed wood. These elements have been attributed to positive outcomes in humans—from reducing stress to boosting productivity.
Today, this emerging trend is increasingly a market expectation, with tenants seeking sustainable, functional and aesthetically pleasing features throughout their offices, homes, retail and hospitality spaces.
Published jointly with our partners at Think Wood, this engaging and stunning LookBook considers the role of wood in the context of biophilic design principles.
Project contact is Chris Pantelides at the University of Utah
A mass timber buckling-restrained braced frame is proposed to enhance the seismic resilience of mass timber buildings. Constructed using wood generated from the national forest system, the mass timber buckling-restrained brace will be integrated with a mass timber frame for structural energy dissipation under seismic or wind loads. The team will improve and optimize the design of structural components based on feedback from a real-time health monitoring system. Outcomes include guidelines for a lateral force resisting system of mass timber buildings in high seismic or wind regions.
The study laid out in this report aims to build on the lessons learned from around the globe and
in BC to promote and facilitate the deployment of BIM and DfMA in the context of mass timber
construction. The study’s objectives were to:
1. Explore BIM tools and software platforms that support collaboration and optimization of
design solutions as well as enable seamless exchange of information in the context of
DfMA of mass-timber solutions.
2. Investigate the potential impact of the use of BIM tools and software platforms on
project and team outcomes in the context of mass-timber construction.
3. Investigate how the modeling process can be streamlined to minimize waste and
optimize the DfMA process in the context of mass-timber construction.
4. Investigate the readiness of manufacturers and installer/assemblers to supply BIM data
for products and systems.
5. Propose recommendations to position the supply chain to design, manufacture and
assemble mass-timber structures.
6. Propose recommendations that identify future training requirements for BIM enabled
DfMA in the context of mass-timber construction.