The process of bamboo-oriented strand lumber (BOSL) represents one of the best opportunities for automation, property control and consistency, and high utilization of material from abundant, fast-growing, and sustainable bamboo. In this study, BOSLs were prepared, with reference to the preparation process of bamboo scrimber, by compressing and densifying constituent units under the action of moisture-heat-force and resin polymerization, and then the effects of density variation on their physical and mechanical properties were investigated. The results revealed that the modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, compressive strength and shear strength of BOSL with density of 0.78–1.3 g/cm3 ranged from 124.42 to 163.2 MPa, 15,455 to 21,849 MPa, 65.02 to 111.63 MPa, and 9.88 to 18.35 MPa, respectively. The preparation of BOSL with bamboo as raw material could retain the good mechanical properties of natural bamboo, and produce bamboo-based structural products with different properties by controlling the density. The high strength of BOSL with high density was primarily due to the increased volume fraction of elementary fibers, the reduced porosity, and the enhanced gluing interface. The performance of BOSL can be comparable to, or surpass that of, wood or bamboo products. This study provided necessary basic research for the engineering design and application of BOSL.
Fire-resisting wood structural elements for building were developed. It is composed of three layers made of glued laminated timber, “a load-bearing part, a self-charring-stop and a surface layer”. Tree species of load-bearing part is limited to the only kind. In order to enable a species different, this research was carried out. Fire resistance test was performed to demonstrate the effect on fire resistance of the wood density. The relationship of fire resistance and wood density of the load-bearing part was clear. Usage of high wood density of the load-bearing part was obtained a conclusion that is advantageous to fire performance.
The in-plane permeability was measured for thick, unidirectional oriented strand lumber made from aspen (Populus tremuloides) strands and pressed to five different densities. The press cycle was such that the vertical density profile of the panels was uniform. Specimens were cut from the boards and sealed inside a specially designed specimen holder; this jig was connected to a permeability measurement apparatus and in-plane permeability measured parallel, perpendicular, and 45° to the strand orientation. Permeability decreased markedly with increasing board density. The highest permeability was in the strand alignment direction and lowest perpendicular to it. The permeability in the 45° direction fell between those in parallel and perpendicular to strand alignment. A polynomial equation was fit to the results of each direction with r2 of 0.938 and 0.993. The in-plane distribution of permeability as a function of flow direction was obtained and its vector diagram was lenticular in shape.
In this study, Malaysian Dark Red Meranti (DRM) was used to manufacture glulam beams, following closely the requirements of BS EN 14080:2013 so as to emulate commercial production. Phenol resorcinol formaldehyde (PRF), commonly used in structural glulam production, was used in the fabrication of finger joints and laminations of the glulam beams. Factors influencing the mechanical properties of finger joints and bonding performance of laminations were investigated. Full size glulam beams were manufactured and tested in bending with partial and complete carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) reinforcement on the tension face and compared with the performance of unreinforced beams. A bench-scale fire test was proposed to describe the behaviour of DRM finger joints in tension under fire condition, in order to simulate the failure of finger joints on the tension side of a glulam beam in a standard fire test. Overall, DRM finger joints exhibited better bending strength than Spruce finger joints which represented softwood used in European glulam. Wood density and end pressure were shown to affect the strength properties of the finger joints. Higher cramping pressure was needed to produce DRM laminations with higher shear strength. The glulam beam with CFRP reinforcement had a higher bending strength than the unreinforced glulam beams but partial reinforcement had an adverse effect on beam strength. In the bench-scale fire test, DRM finger-jointed specimens exhibited lower charring rate than Spruce. Furthermore, PRF finger-jointed specimens showed better fire performance than finger-jointed specimens bonded with polyurethane (PUR) adhesive. In conclusion, it is hoped that results from this research will motivate engineers and architects in Malaysia to design and build structures from less-utilised local timber, specifically in the form of glulam, encouraging the timber industry in Malaysia to produce them commercially.
The compressive strength in the major direction of cross-laminated timber CLT is the key to supporting the building load when CLT is used as load-bearing walls in high-rise wood structures. This study mainly aims to present a model for predicting the average compressive strength of CLT and promoting the utilization of CLT made out of planted larch. The densities and compressive strengths of lamina specimens and CLT samples with widths of 89 and 178 mm were evaluated, and their relationship was analyzed to build a prediction model by using Monte Carlo simulation. The results reveal that the average density of the lamina and CLT were about equal, whereas the average compressive strength of the CLT was just about 72% of that of the lamina. Width exerted no significant effect on the average compressive strength of the CLT, but homogenization caused the wider CLT to have a smaller variation than that of the lamina. The average compressive strength of the lamina could be calculated by using the average density of lamina multiply by 103.10, and the average compressive strength of the CLT could be calculated according to the compression strength of lamina in major and minor direction, therefore, a new prediction model is determined to predict the average compression strength of CLT by using the average density of lamina or CLT, the average compression strength of CLT made in this study is about 74.23 times of the average density of the lamina. The results presented in this study can be used to predict the average compressive strength of CLT by using the average density of lamina and provide a fundamental basis for supporting the utilization of CLT as load-bearing walls.
This work focuses on optimization of the laminated lap-joint lengthening technology that is used to produce large-size bamboo bundle laminated veneer lumber (BLVL). A three-factor Box-Behnken design was developed in which lap-joint length (x1), board density (x2), and thickness of lap veneer (x3) were the three factors. Multi-objective optimization of response surface model was used to obtain 17 optimum Pareto solutions by a genetic algorithms method. The mechanical properties of BLVL predicted using the model had a strong correlation with the experimental values (R2 = 0.925 for the elastic modulus (MOE), R2 = 0.972 for the modulus of rupture (MOR), R2 = 0.973 for the shearing strength (SS)). The interaction of the x1 and x3 factors had a significant effect on MOE. The MOR and shearing SS were significantly influenced by the interaction of x2 and x3 factors. The optimum conditions for maximizing the mechanical properties of BLVL lap-joint lengthening process were established at x1 = 16.10 mm, x2 = 1.01 g/cm3, and x3 = 7.00 mm. A large-size of BLVL with a length of 14.1 m was produced with the above conditions. Strong mechanical properties and dimensional stability were observed.
The aim of this project was to validate the assumption used within the Australian Standard AS1720.1 for calculating compression perpendicular to grain for common timber species and develop practical methods to reduce compression deformation.
The project was successful in demonstrating that perpendicular to grain displacement of wall plates by studs can be reduced. It found that stud on stud connection was the best method as it removed the wall plates out of the load path altogether. The study also found where this is not possible, replacement of the wall plate with a stiffer timber such as a high density hardwood, softwood or cross laminated timber reduces this deformation.
The investigation also found that the method used in AS1720.1 to assign perpendicular to grain bearing capacities for various timber species by “strength group” or stress grade over predicted low to medium density timber species whilst under predicting high density timber species. Accordingly, it is recommended that perpendicular to grain bearing capacity be assigned by the timber species’ density and that the characteristic values of commonly used timber species be re-established.