The following topics in the field of seismic analysis and design of mid-rise (5- and 6-storey) wood-frame buildings are included in this paper: Determination of the building period, linear dynamic analysis of wood-frame structures, deflections of stacked multi-storey shearwalls, diaphragm classification, capacity-based design for woodframe...
Serviceability performance studied covers three different performance attributes of a building. These attributes are 1) vibration of the whole building structure, 2) vibration of the floor system, typically in regards to motions in a localized area within the entire floor plate, and 3) sound insulation performance of the wall and floor assemblies. Serviceability performance of a building is important as it affects the comfort of its occupants and the functionality of sensitive equipment as well. Many physical factors influence these performances. Designers use various parameters to account for them in their designs and different criteria to manage these performances. Lack of data, knowledge and experience of sound and vibration performance of tall wood buildings is one of the issues related to design and construction of tall wood buildings.
In order to bridge the gaps in the data, knowledge, and experience of sound and vibration performance of tall wood buildings, FPInnovations conducted a three-phase performance testing on the Origine 13-storey CLT building of 40.9 m tall in Quebec city. It was the tallest wood building in Eastern Canada in 2017.
In timber-concrete composite systems, timber and concrete are inherently brittle materials that behave linearly elastic in both tension and bending. However, the shear connection between the members can exhibit significant ductility. It is therefore possible to develop timber-concrete composite systems with ductile connection that behave in a ductile fashion. This study illustrates the use of an elastic-perfectly plastic analytical approach to this problem. In addition, the study proposes an incremental method for predicting the nonlinear load-deflection response of the composite system. The accuracy of the analytical model is confirmed with a computer model, and numerical solutions of the analytical model are compared to experimental results from the bending tests conducted by previous researchers. Reasonable agreement is found from the comparisons, which validates the capacity of the analytical model in predicting the structural behaviour of the timber-concrete composite systems in both elastic and post-elastic stages.
Recent years have seen more architects and clients asking for tall timber buildings. In response, an ambitious timber community has been proposing challenging plans and ideas for multi-storey commercial and residential timber buildings. While engineers have been intensively looking at gravity-load-carrying elements as well as walls, frames and cores to resist lateral loads, floor diaphragms have been largely neglected.
Complex floor geometries and long span floor diaphragms create stress concentrations, high force demand and potentially large deformations. There is a lack of guidance and regulation regarding the analysis and design of timber diaphragms so structural engineers need a practical alternative to simplistic equivalent deep beam analysis or costly finite element modelling.
This paper proposes an equivalent truss method capable of solving complex geometries for both light timber framing and massive timber diaphragms. Floor panels are discretized by equivalent diagonals, having the same stiffness as the panel including its fasteners. With this method the panel unit shear forces (shear flow) and therefore fastener demand, chord forces and reaction forces can be evaluated. Because panel stiffness is accounted for, diaphragm deflection, torsional effects and transfer forces can also be assessed.
In the past study, we conducted compression tests with laminated veneer lumber of Japanese Larch. We observed the deflection and strain behaviour. As a result we could evaluate the bucking strength with Euler’s equation and Tetmajer’s method. For structural design we should expand the versatility of that method. Three wood species for structural members would be selected for these tests. Those were Japanese larch, Japanese cypress and Japanese cedar. For the test parameter, we set the 8types of slenderness ratio for the compression test and we conducted monotonic compression tests with pin-supported on both edges. For the mechanical properties we conducted compression tests with short column members and got yield compression for those materials. In the compression tests, we could see the bending deflection. We would get the ratio the maximum strength and yield strength for distinguish the limited slenderness ratio. As a result it was cleared that the limit slenderness ratio of these wood species was 100. And we could confirm that the Tetmajer’s method is useful for evaluation the yield strength.
Over the last two decades many constitutive models with different degrees of accuracy have been developed for analysis of sawn timber and engineered wood products. However, most of the existing models for analysis of timber members are not particularly practical to implement, owing to the large number of material properties (and associated testing) required for calibration of the constitutive law. In order to overcome this limitation, this paper presents details of 1D, 2D and 3D non-linear fi nite element (FE) models that take advantage of a quasi-brittle material model, requiring a minimum number of material properties to capture the load-defl ection response and failure load of timber beams under 4-point bending. In order to validate the model, four tapered timber piles with circular cross-section (two plains and two retrofi tted with steel jacket) were tested and analysed with the proposed 3D FE modelling technique; and a good correlation between experimentally observed and numerically captured ultimate load was observed. Consequently, it was concluded that the developed FE models used in conjunction with the quasi-brittle constitutive law were able to adequately capture the failure load and load-defl ection response of the fl exural timber elements.
This report represents the results of the activities performed in working group 1, Basis of Design. The most important task of working group 1 was the defragmentation and harmonization of techniques and methods that are necessary to prove the reliable, safe and economic application of timber materials or products in the construction industry.
This report is structured into five parts. At first general principles regarding the design formats are addressed (Part I). Afterwords timber specific aspects regarding code calibration (Part II) and serviceability (Part III) are summarized. In Part IV other demanding issues for the implementation into Eurocode 5 are addressed. Here also summaries of joint activities with other working groups on cross laminated timber and timber connections are presented. The report concludes with a guideline for data analysis (Part V).
In Phase I of Developing Large Span Two Way CLT Floor System (2017-18) we studied the performance of a steel plate connection system for the minor direction of CLT plates. The connected specimens had higher stiffness and strength compared to intact members under bending. In Phase II (2018-19) we designed and tested another connector based on...
This paper contains the research results of a study related to developing an approach to estimate the deflection of Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) shear walls for platform-framed construction. In order to account for the total deflection at the top of the wall, the contributions of connections and the CLT panels are considered. The connection contributions are accounted for through wall sliding and rocking, whereas the contribution of the CLT panels is estimated from the bending and shear deformation under lateral loading. The influence of perpendicular walls and floors above on the in-plane deflection of CLT shear wall is also investigated. A step by step procedure to estimate the deflection of CLT shear walls without and with perpendicular walls and floors above is discussed with examples.